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Describe the characteristics of nutrients and their benefits to the body and Explain the potential risks to health of inappropriate nutrition.

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National Diploma Year 1 National Diploma Health and Social Care in Health Studies Unit 21 Nutrition for Health and Social Care Teacher: Sarah Cooper Describe the characteristics of nutrients and their benefits to the body and Explain the potential risks to health of inappropriate nutrition. In order to obtain good health we must consume a balanced diet daily. To do this we must eat recommended amounts of food from the five food groups which are: 1. Fruit and vegetables 2. Meat, fish & alternatives 3. Bread, cereals & potatoes 4. Milk & dairy 5. Foods which contain fats and food and drink which contains sugars These five food groups contain the seven components of a balanced diet they are: 1. Protein 2. Carbohydrates 3. Lipids 4. Vitamins 5. Minerals 6. Fibre 7. Water Protein, carbohydrates and lipids are known as macronutrients because the body needs lots of these to carry out the bodies' essential functions. Vitamins and minerals are known as micronutrients as the body only needs small amounts of these daily. Fibre is needed by the body to prevent constipation and water is needed to prevent dehydration and both equally important as macro and micronutrients for the body's daily functions. ...read more.


2. Secondary structure - The primary structure is folded into either alpha helix or a beta pleated sheet shape. 3. Tertiary structure- The secondary structure is then folded into a globular or fibrous shape depending how the protein prefers to be folded. There are many functions of protein in the body such as being used for growth and repair of tissues, producing antibodies to defend the body from antigens, enzymes which make biochemical reactions easier and hormones which coordinate certain bodily activities. The average adult requires 48g of protein daily. Carbohydrates are known as macronutrients and are needed in large amounts daily by the body. They contain the elements: C Carbon H Hydrogen O Oxygen Carbohydrates are divided into two groups either sugars or starches. Sugars are then divided into Monosaccharides that typical is glucose and Disaccharides which typical known as sucrose which can be added to tea or coffee. These are quick release sugars and are soluble in water, these are the sugars we usually crave. Disaccharides are made from adding together two Monosaccharides in a condensation reaction where water is lost. Starches are known as Polysaccharides, they are typical known as starch, cellulose and glycogen. ...read more.


If a lipid contains its full amount of hydrogen's it is said to be saturated which could be called a bad fatty acid, this can cause a build up in the arteries and then cause a heart attack. If there isn't the correct amount of hydrogen then it is called an unsaturated fatty acid. The body needs certain fatty acids but is unable to make them itself. These acids are called essential fatty acids. These essential acids can be found in vegetables, seeds and fish. The body only requires small amounts of these acids and are usually present in healthy diets. They play a role in the immune process and vision and also help in the production of hormone like substances. Cholesterol is a steroid which has lipid like properties. Cholesterol is required to build and maintain cell membranes. It also forms some hormones such as Oestrogen and Testosterone. The liver produces about 1 gram of cholesterol per day through the bile, which contains cholesterol, excess can cause gall stones. Diseases such as Anorexia can cause the suffer from losing most of their body fat from starving themselves, this can therefore leave them feeling very cold, which in turn causes their bodies to develop hair all over their bodies which is called Langugo in order to keep them warm. 1 Sarah-Jane Burke ...read more.

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