Describe the origins of public health in the UK
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National Diploma Health and Social Care in Health Studies Unit 12 Public Health Task 1 Section 1B - P2 Describe the origins of public health in the UK 19th Century Sir Edwin Chadwick Sir Edwin Chadwick was a social advocate or reformer in England who lived between 1800 and 1890. He's especially known for his work in the reform of the Poor Laws and also the improvements of sanitary conditions and public health. Chadwick strongly believed that if improvements to public health were made, it would save money. Chadwick was employed by the Royal commission to enquire into the Poor Laws in 1982 and by 1983 was made a full member of the Royal Commission. Working with Nassau William Senior they drafted what was to be the famous report of 1834, which recommended the reform of the old Poor Laws. From their findings the 'Poor Laws Act' of 1834 was passed which lead to the reform of the country's poverty relief system, created a centralised system of public health and improve the sanitation of the general public. Another act which Chadwick had a part in, is the 'Public Health Act 1848'. The act ensured sanitary conditions were provided for populated towns and cities in the UK, which would also provide water, drainage, sewerage and clean pavements.
20th Century William Beveridge In 1941 the government ordered a report into hoe Britain should be rebuilt after the war, William Beveridge was chosen to conduct this report, he wrote Social Insurance and Allied services which he became best known for and later known as 'The Beveridge Report'. The report proposed that people of working age should weekly contributions 'national insurance'. These contributions should then be used to benefit people who were sick, unemployed, retires or widowed. Beveridge argued that implementing this system would ensure minimum standards of living were provided and that no one should fall below. From this report The Welfare State was introduced and the emergence of the National Health Service. Beveridge believed security and relief was needed to tackle what he called 'the five giants on the road to reconstrution' which were: * Want - From which came the Benefit system * Disease - From which came the NHS * Ignorance - From which came the Education system * Squalor - From which came the Local Housing systems * Idleness - From which came the Department of employment The National Health Service (NHS) The NHS was created in the aftermath of the Second World War and based on the proposal William Beveridge made in Beveridge report.
The role of tackling causes of ill health and inequalities fell to the government to support and empower individuals to make changes in their own lives. There are three underpinnings principles of the document which are: * Informed choice - with the protection of children considered and to not allow one person choice have an effect on others * Personalisation - provide tailored support to individual * Working together - effective partnership The report highlighted areas of priority that needed addressing such as reducing the number of people that smoke, reduce obesity which leads onto improving diet and nutrition and increasing exercise. The need to encourage sensible drinking and improvements needed in sexual and mental health. Areas of action were also set out in the white paper. By 2010 all schools such have an active travel plan in place for their school, working with the national charity Sustrans, local authorities such build new cycle lanes and tracks. And the main area the NHS will help to train people in make healthier choices, all NHS staff will be trained in order to deliver key health messages to their patients and NHS will become a model employer delivering the right message to everyone. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1
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