Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12

Describe the role of energy in the body and the physiology of three named body systems in relation to energy metabolism

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

P4: Describe the role of energy in the body and the physiology of three named body systems in relation to energy metabolism Energy laws One of the laws is thermodynamics which is also known as the conservation of energy. A consequence of this law is that energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be transformed from one state to another. The only thing that can happen to energy in a closed system is that it can change form, for instance chemical energy can become kinetic energy. The other part of this law is transformation of energy which is the transformation of energy from one form into another. This form might not be capable of being measured or of use. Forms of energy Chemical energy is the most common form out of the several forms that there are of it. The chemical bond is what combines atoms or molecules with one another, energy is found within these bonds. Once a newly formed bond is produced through two atoms, energy is needed in order for this bond to be formed successfully. The energy that is used is normally heat energy, however light and electrical energy can also be used. Once a bond splits, atoms are secreted and so is the energy that was in that bond. Other forms of energy include heat, light, sound, electrical and nuclear energy. Chemical energy: Chemical energy is energy that is kept within chemical compound. A chemical compound consists of atoms that either gain or lose energy. Chemical energy is the type of energy that these atoms are either gaining or losing. Materials and substances such as food, biomass, fuel and explosives all contain chemical energy. Chemical reactions in our bodies are what releases heat energy from food. Coal, oil and natural gas are fuels that consist of chemical energy which can be transported into other forms of energy such as heat and light. ...read more.

Middle

It's what carries information through the cells to various parts of the body and external environment. Transportation of substances is the main function of the blood. The blood is used to transport: * Oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs * Nutrients to the tissues and cell wastes to organs such as the kidneys so that they can be excreted * Hormones to the required body organs * Heat that is formed in active tissues is transported through the blood to less active tissues. * Antibodies to areas of the body that are infected The blood is made up of a clear fluid called plasma. The blood is made up of about 55% of plasma fluid and about 45% of blood volume. The plasma is made up of water and substances such as plasma proteins, inorganic salts, nutrients, waste substances, hormones and gases. Plasma, red blood cells and white blood such as lymphocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil are all part of the blood. Ethrocytes consist of haemoglobin, which is an essential in order for human survival. Haemoglobin is a protein that contains iron and is important as it forms strong chemical bonds when combined with oxygen when in an environment that has a high concentration of oxygen. The chemical bond that is formed is called oxyhaemoglobin. Oxy haemoglobin is produced within the blood inside lung capillaries and it delivers oxygen to the tissue cells. However when haemoglobin is in an environment where oxygen concentration levels are low, the oxygen is given body cells. At this point haemoglobin has reduced. Respiratory system The respiratory system supply's the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body which is done through breathing. When we breathe, we inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. Respiration is achieved through the mouth, nose, trachea, lungs, and diaphragm, many smaller tubes which connect to tiny sacs called alveoli. ...read more.

Conclusion

When food that is rich in lipids is consumed, bile is released by the gall bladder into the small intestine. Another function of the liver is that it takes glucose and other sugars from the blood that it has received from the small intestine and turns these into glycogen, which is then stored. The pancreas: The pancreas is situated near the duodenum and it is found between the intestines and the stomach. The pancreas releases pancreatic juices which are filled with enzymes and also alkaline salts which help neutralise the stomachs acidic secretions. These juices interrelate with nutrients such as protein, fat and carbohydrates and are responsible for breaking down complex food molecules and turning them into amino acids, glucose and similar simple sugars and also fatty acids and glycerol. Salivary glands: There are three types of salivary glands which release saliva into the mouth. Saliva contains salivary amylase, this is what starts the carbohydrates being digested. It also helps keep the mouth wet and in the production of the food bolus. Role of the digestive system in breakdown and absorption of food materials (ingestion, absorption and egestion): Ingestion is the name given for the consumption of food. Food is made from large complex molecules which consist of protein, carbohydrate and fat that cannot travel through the alimentary canal. The transformation of these complex molecules into simple soluble molecules allows absorption to take place in the bloodstream and allows metabolic processes to occur. Substances that have not been absorbed are known as waste material and these leave the body through the anus, this is egestion. Peristalsis: Peristalsis is the process where food and chyme travel through the alimentary canal. According to stretch and whitehouse (2007) 'behind the bolus or chyme the inner circular muscle contracts (and the longitudinal muscle relaxes) pushing material in front of it.' At the front of the material the circular muscle is what relaxes and the longitudinal muscles is what contracts and it is what opens in order to receive food. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Healthcare section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Healthcare essays

  1. P4- Explain the physiology of two named body systems in relation to energy metabolism ...

    The pulmonary circulation The circulation to and from the lungs is known as the âPulmonary circulationâ and that around the body is the systemic circulation. In the pulmonary circulation, the pulmonary artery carrying deoxygenated blood leaves the right ventricle to go to the lungs and enters the left atrium.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The Role of Energy in the Body and the Physiology of Three Named Body ...

    5 star(s)

    Blood carries dissolved oxygen to the body cells and at the same time removes the waste products of respiration, carbon dioxide and water. However, blood is also important in distributing heat around the body, along with hormones, nutrients, salts, enzymes and urea.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Produce a written assignment showing an understanding of the four main tissue types (epithelial, ...

    4 star(s)

    In the intestine- The lumen is the cavity where digested food passes through and from where nutrients are absorbed. Both intestines share a general structure with the whole gut, and are composed of several layers.

  2. P2 - Physiology of fluid balance

    A gas can occur within the human body, like both solids and liquids. Gases within the body include; oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen which are common gases within the air, which we inhale when we breathe in and expire when we breathe out.

  1. Unit 5 Anatomy and physiology in health and social care

    and contains DNA (in chromosomes). It is represented by the plum. The Golgi apparatus- is a flattened, layered, sac-like organelle which looks like a stack of pancakes. The main function of the Golgi apparatus is to process and package proteins and lipids for delivery to other organelles or outwards from the cell.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    P2: Describe the structure of the tissues of the body and their role in ...

    4 star(s)

    Simple: This type of tissue is made up of more than 2 layers and its deepest layer rests on the basement membrane. As it has many layers, it is unable to secrete or absorb. However it acts as a protective layer against mechanical, chemical, thermal and osmotic stress.

  1. Describe (P4) the role of energy in the body and explain (M1) the physiology ...

    in other words, it is the rate at which your body consumes calories when at rest. Metabolism. The first most important thing is our body metabolism. If we are not getting the proper food. All food has many types of vitamins and meats we eat have a lot of energetic sources.

  2. In the human body the respiratory system, cardiovascular system, the digestive system, the musculoskeletal ...

    The oxygen which is breathed in moves across your blood stream, the body needs oxygen to help digest food. When the respiratory system is working to take in oxygen it gives a steady supply of oxygen to all the cells, the cells then uses that oxygen to break down glucose which helps generate energy.

  • Over 180,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work

Marked by a teacher

This essay has been marked by one of our great teachers. You can read the full teachers notes when you download the essay.

Peer reviewed

This essay has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review on the essay page.

Peer reviewed

This essay has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review under the essay preview on this page.