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Describe the types of medication prescribed and administered to individuals and the routes of administration of medicines.

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Describe the types of medication prescribed and administered to individuals and the routes of administration of medicines (P1). Medicine administration must be carried out correctly and sufficient knowledge of side effects of that administered medication and the reasons why an individual should be prescribed that medication is vital as if this isn't known mistakes that can lead to death and serious injuries may occur. The Medicines Act (1968) separated and classified the different types of medicines as Pharmacy only medicines (P), General Sales List Medicines (GSL), Prescription Only Medications (POM) and Controlled Drugs (CD). The term medicine has been given to a drug which has the role of preventing or treating a disease. The term drug has been given to a material when taken has the ability to change the normal function in the body. Medicines have been further categorised in their title, they can be known as generic or trade/brand. Generic is a non proprietary name which is based on the specific source or core ingredient of that medicine a common example of this is paracetamol. The trade or brand name has been titled from the manufacturer's name which in the case of paracetamol's brand name would be panadol. The ways in which these medicines should be administered are described below. Pharmacy only medicines (P) are to be administered under the guided supervision of a pharmacist and can be bought from registered pharmacies and do not require a prescription from the doctor. An example of this is Benedryl which are tablets used to treat hay fever and allergies. General Sales List Medicines (GSL) can be brought from licensed shops and supermarkets and do not require the supervision of a pharmacist unless they are brought from pharmacies. Prescription only medicines (POM) are medicines prescribed by a health care professional before it can be administered in a pharmacy. Controlled drugs (CD) can only be prescribed by the doctor and careful measures must be taken when administering this, administration has to be recorded and a record kept in a CD register, storage of these drugs must be safe and kept in a double locked cabinet. ...read more.


a trained professional but training and instructions may be given so it can be correctly administered a common example of this is insulin used for sufferers of diabetes. Ingestion is when the medicine is administered orally by the mouth, such as tablets, liquid solutions and capsules. Tablets and capsules are created to slowly release the medicine because if it was released at once it may cause an overdose. Liquid solutions suspensions and syrups are really useful for those who have difficulties swallowing due to other numerous illnesses. This exceptionally good for young children. They are administered and measured using a 2.5 or 5ml spoon, oral syringes or medicine pots. It is very dangerous for individuals to crush tablets and consume them as this can cause numerous side effects in later life. This also takes away the license of the medicine and makes it illegal only medical, dental and nursing practitioners can modify the unlicensed medicines. Therefore the prescriber's permission is required in order to crush a tablet. They can be taken in two ways, by forms of swallowing or sublingually, this is where the tablet is dissolving under the tongue in order to be taken. There are available in various sizes, colours, tastes and shapes. Infusion is the process where medicines and fluids are administered to the patient for a period such as 6 hours into a muscle or vein. These patients will be handled by trained nurses. An example of medicine administered through infusion is blood or intravenous glucose. Medicines administered topically are those applied directly to the skin such as ointments, creams and gels. This form of medicine is beneficial to those, who suffer from skin conditions such as eczema. In order to prevent cross- contamination gloves must be worn and other relevant PPE equipment when handling and applying these medicines to patients as it may be absorbed into the skin otherwise. ...read more.


Medication through this route should be given on an individual named basis by trained staff such as nurses. Adverse reaction sis the term given to side effects caused bythese medicines. These can be minor to start off with and can stop over time but they can also develop and cause you to stop taking that medication altogether. The individual must be able to recognise if the side effects are minor or major and what to do in emergency situations. Individuals should seek professional help such as calling an ambulance, inform the manager, when the individual is taken in his heart rate, pulse, colour, temperature etc. will be monitored. Treatment for theses symptoms will be given after advice is provided to the individual on what went wrong, information and response of the treatment should be recorded in the drug chart in order to prevent it reoccurring. The individual's doctor should then be informed. Frequent side effects of drugs are as follows; * Swelling * Rash * Diarrhoea * Vomiting * Nausea * Difficulty in breathing * Weight gain/loss * Stiffness * Constipation * Headaches * Drowsiness * Shaking There are some remedies known as home remedies which can be administered to an individual without being prescribed. Each of these home remedies contain a home remedy policy which is individually detailed. These are administered and purchased for specific clinical conditions and for a maximum length of time and maximum doses per day. Administration must again be recorded in the drug chart for that individual. It is recommended that a health professional such as clinician checks and signs the policy of the home remedy and ensures dosage and administration methods are correct. A common example of a home remedy is paracetamol and an example of its policy is take 1-2 tablets every 4 hours do not exceed more than 8 tablets in 24 hours. Take for minor headaches, period pains and pain. And do not administer if taking any other medication containing paracetamol. ?? ?? ?? ?? Sadia Ellahi 20093700 BTEC National In Health Studies ...read more.

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