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Discuss How Stress Affects the Individual.

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Introduction

DISCUSS HOW STRESS AFFECTS THE INDIVIDUAL There are three approaches to stress, these are the response-based approach, the stimulus based approach, and the interactive approach. "The first approach treats stress as an Independent variable for study, describing it in terms of the persons response to dist- urbing or noxious environments. The second approach describes stress in terms of the stimulus characteristics of those disturbing or noxious environments and thus treats it as an independent variable for study. The third .....,approach views stress as the reflection of a lack of 'fit' between the person and his envi- ronment." (Cox,T.1978) The human body is made up of the internal environment. This contains cells, tissues, organs, and systems, each making the other one up in that order. A fluid known as extra-cellular fluid covers each cell. This fluid contains three vital substances, these are 1) Nutrients, which are our foods, 2) Gases, which are mainly Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide, and 3) Positively Charged Ions, which are mainly Potassium, and Sodium. When the internal environment is at a general level of functioning of a healthy body we call it Homeostasis. ...read more.

Middle

More recently burn out has been linked to the home. This is known as domestic burnout. There are three stages to burnout, these are 1) Stress, 2) Strain, and 3)Changes in attitude and behaviour. Stage one, 'Stress', involves an imbalance between resources and demands. Stage two, 'Strain', can lead to feelings of anxiety and fatigue, this is due to the imbalance in stage one. Stage three, 'Changes in attitude and behaviour', leads to emotional detachment, and also physical and emotional exhaustion. Our emotion at a given time depends on our interpretation of the situation, this is known as Cognitive Appraisal. Illnesses that have stress related conditions include, Diabetes Mellitus, Peptic Ulcers, Cardio Vascular Disease, and Coronary Heart Disease. These illnesses are all studied through a field known as 'Psychoneuroimunology'. It studies the links of stress with diseases. A man known as 'Raab' in 1971 explained coronary Heart Disease through a hypothesis, ".....The second factor is a stress factor: sympathetic-adronomedually activity, which increases oxygen demand,........... Potassium and Magnesium are lost, and Sodium retained." ...read more.

Conclusion

Our cells help carry foodstuffs around the body, other cells help fight illnesses. Cells known as T-Lymphocytes fight off our illnesses and diseases. T-Lymphocytes are reduced under stress. If our T-Lymphocytes are lowered than our chances to fight those illnesses and diseases are rapidly reduced. Cancer has been recognised to occur in people who are under stress. The relationship here is that if our T Lymphocyte cell count is lowered then our bodies cannot combat the cancerous cells. This can lead to deterioration of the body, and can lead to death. Stress, however has not been connected with the production of cancerous cells. Stress can also lead to mental illnesses. There are seven important aspects to keep in mind when considering a psychological disorder. These are age, gender, physique, genetic back round, environment, occupation, and even what religion a person believes on. Religion plays a big part in psychological disorders as it can have strong influences on a persons thinking and behaviour. "Behaviour may appear strange if we don't understand underlying reasons for that behaviour" (Class Notes, 2002) Stress means different things to different people, it is what they perceive it to be and exists when they say it does. Rachael Rowe HND Social Sciences: Psychology Jan 2003 ...read more.

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