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Discuss the nature-nurture debate in relation to individual development

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BND Health and Social Care Unit 4- Development Through The Life Stages P4- Describe the two theories of ageing M3- Use examples to compare two major theories of ageing D2-Evaluate the influence of two major theories of ageing on health and social care provision In this assignment I am going to be writing about the two theories of the ageing process of an individual. These two theories are called the disengagement theory and the activity theory. Disengagement Theory The disengagement theory was a theory, introduced by two authors called Cuming and Henry (1961), which suggested that as we get older, we will naturally make positive effort to withdraw from life as a response to their lessening physical, intellectual, emotional and social skills and abilities, diminishing interests and expectations of how they should behave. The reason for this is because older people will disengage due to reduced physical health and loss of social opportunities. (B.Stretch, 2007) There are many problems or issues that have a tendency to limit social interactions, which could potentially be a reason why older people tend to disengage more. ...read more.


However, as people grow older, some life events which include retirement and bereavement cause people to loose contact and get rid of their social networks and cut down on the amount of social contacts they have. This theory suggests that by interacting in new and alternative activities that promote and add to their relationship, gives the elderly the sense of achievement which can cause them to have full interest in their lives. (B.Stretch, 2007) Activity theory is basic perspective which suggests that elderly people will important benefits and they will be able to make meaningful contributions to other people's lives if they are involved in activities. Studies which have been taken out have shown that elder adults do indeed benefit from activities that make them feel like they that they accomplishing something. Doing an activity for the sake of doing it can have negative consequences. Therefore doing an activity of some sort which the person is interested in can have some positive effects. So therefore they should take something like gardening, visiting art galleries, walking or going to the theatre. This can improve an individuals wellbeing and keep them health. ...read more.


That eases the physical and social limitations that naturally accompany aging. (www.health.howstuffworks.com/life-stages/aging/disengagement-theory2) Disengagement is a two-way process. The individual progressively disengages from their general involvement with society (retirement and so forth) and society, in turn, starts to disengage from the individual (people interact socially with the elderly on fewer and fewer occasions). Criticisms of this theory that we could note here are that: 1. Disengagement is not a progressive, inevitable, consequence of growing old (few people are always actively engaged in the society to which they belong, for example). On this basis we could justify discriminatory measures against, for example, the unemployed, on the basis that they have disengaged themselves from a normal, central, activity in society. 2. Secondly, as the unemployment example shows, disengagement is not simply a matter of choice - the old have disengagement forced upon them. This theory ignores the role of cultural values and economic structures in the active creation of disengagement. The main conclusion for this is that when it is considered in earlier life it is referred to & discussed as development and later in life when change is considered it is referred to as aging. Also that none of the theories mentioned above can claim sufficient evidence to account for the aging effects that are witnessed & experienced in humans. ...read more.

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Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

This essay aimed to discuss two theories of aging. The student met P4 by giving details of activity theory and disengagement theory.
The descriptions of the theories were very good. However poor grammar made some of the ideas difficult to understand.

I would have liked to have seen the student use a wider range of care settings, with regards to meeting D2.
Remember to include a list of references at the end of the work.
There were several spelling & grammar errors which could be minimised by careful proof-reading.

Marked by teacher Debbie Apeah-Kubi 24/05/2013

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