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Endocrine Disorders.

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Introduction

Endocrine Disorders The human body is controlled by two main body systems: the nervous system and the endocrine system. The nervous system uses neurons or "nerve cells" to send electrical impulses around the body; these are mainly fast, short lasting effects and control things such as sense and motion. The endocrine system uses hormones secreted by endocrine glands to different cells in the body for longer lasting processes including growth, metabolism and development. Hormones travel in the blood stream but their effect is only exerted on specific target organs. The endocrine system is composed of twelve different endocrine glands placed in different regions of the body Diagram 1 below shows their position in the body. Diagram 1. This picture shows where in the body the endocrine glands are placed. Each endocrine gland produces different hormones each with their own specific function. The endocrine glands and the hormones they secrete are listed in the table below. Table 1. This shows the hormones secreted by the different pituitary gland. Endocrine Gland Hormones Secreted Hypothalamus * Hypothalamic-releasing and -inhibiting hormones Posterior Pituitary * Antidiuretic (ADH) * Oxytocin Anterior Pituitary * Adrenocortiophic (ACTH) * Gonadrophic (FSH, LH) * Growth (GH) * Melanocyte-stimulating (MSH) * Prolactin (PRL) * Thyroid-stimulating (TSH) Thyroid * Thyroxine (T4) * Triiodothyonine (T3) * Calcitonin Parathyroid * Parathyroxide (PTH) Adrenal Cortex * Glucocorticoids (cotisol) * Mineral ocorticoids (aldosterone) ...read more.

Middle

The symptoms for type 2 diabetic as are the complications are somewhat similar to those of type 1 diabetics although patients tend to be over weight, it is believed that the excess body fat plays a role in the resistance to insulin that characterises the disease. Most patients with this type of diabetes can control their condition with strict diet restrictions and exercise some may need oral medication The production of insulin by the pancreas is in the form of a negative feedback mechanism. The blood sugar level rises in the presence of glucagon so the pancreas secretes insulin, which lowers the glucose levels in turn stopping the secretion of insulin by the pancreas. When this malfunctions diabetes mellitus can occur. The negative feedback mechanism of the pancreas is shown in diagram 2. Diagram 2. This shows the negative feedback system of the pancreas. Diabetes Insipidus The much rarer form of diabetes, "Diabetes Insipidus" is not caused by the pancreas but by the pituitary gland, which is known as the master gland. The condition occurs when inadequate amounts of Antidiuretic hormone are produced by the posterior pituitary gland. A decreased ability in the kidneys to concentrate the urine is associated with this disorder resulting in excessive urination, thirst, body fluid and blood sodium level imbalances. Diabetes Insipidus can be inherited or can result in injuries of tumours in the pituitary of hypothalamus. ...read more.

Conclusion

Diagram 3. Pictures of the outcome of some symptoms of Acromegaly. Addison's Disease Addison's disease is the condition that develops when the adrenal cortex hormones are low due to hyposecretion. The ineffective but excessive presence of ACTH causes the skin to bonze, due to a build up of melatonin, which can also occur in the presence of MSH. Other symptoms of Addison's disease include weight loss, anaemia, weakness, low blood pressure and digestive upset. Addison's disease is named after the man Thomas Addison, a London physician who first described it 1849 and more fully in 1855. Addison's disease is not common in children and those over 60; it's most common in people in there 20s and 30s. There is no cue for Addison's but people suffering from it can lead a normal life with the help of replacement therapy. In the past many people with the condition died from it after what seemed a relatively short illness and this baffled doctors. An autoimmune disease or tuberculosis mostly causes the condition. Diagram 4. This diagram below shows the feedback mechanism of the pituitary gland in aspect into the hormones that when malfunction cause Addison's disease. Many other conditions can occur from malfunctions of the endocrine glands, some of these disorders can be fatal others can be treated with replacement hormones and surgery. In order for our bodies to remain in a constant stable state, Homeostasis, it is required that all of the functions of every part of our body including the endocrine system have to work together properly. ...read more.

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