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Erik Erikson Theory Social and Emotional Development

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Introduction

´╗┐Erik Erikson Theory Social and Emotional Development Born: June 15, 1902 (Frankfurt) Died: May 12, 1994 (Harwich) Erik Erikson thought that personality develops in different series of stages. ?He believed that the life of a human can be divided into stages.? (Beaver and Brewster, 2008, pg 59) Unlike Freud?s theory of psychosexual stages, Erikson?s theory describes the impact of social experiences across the whole lifespan. One of the main points about Erikson?s psychosocial stage theory is the development of ego identity. Ego identifies how we can develop through social interactions. According to Erikson, our ego identity is always changing due to new experience and information we get in our daily interactions with others. Erikson also believed that a sense of capability also motivates behaviours and actions. Each stage in Erikson?s theory is worried with becoming skilled in an area of life. If the stage is handled well, the person will feel a sense of mastery, which he sometimes referred to as ego strength or ego quality. ...read more.

Middle

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt The second stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development takes place during early childhood and is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control. Like Freud, Erikson believed that toilet training was a vital part of this process. However, Erikson's reasoning was quite different than that of Freud's. Erikson believe that learning to control one?s body functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence. Other important events include gaining more control over food choices, toy preferences, and clothing selection. Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt. Initiative vs. Guilt During the preschool years, children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interaction. Children who are successful at this stage feel capable and able to lead others. Those who fail to acquire these skills are left with a sense of guilt, self-doubt and lack of initiative.3 Industry vs. ...read more.

Conclusion

Remember that each step builds on skills learned in previous steps. Erikson believed that a strong sense of personal identity was important to developing intimate relationships. Studies have demonstrated that those with a poor sense of self tend to have less committed relationships and are more likely to suffer emotional isolation, loneliness, and depression. Generativity vs. Stagnation During adulthood, we continue to build our lives, focusing on our career and family. Those who are successful during this phase will feel that they are contributing to the world by being active in their home and community. Those who fail to attain this skill will feel unproductive and uninvolved in the world. Integrity vs. Despair This phase occurs during old age and is focused on reflecting back on life. Those who are unsuccessful during this phase will feel that their life has been wasted and will experience many regrets. The individual will be left with feelings of bitterness and despair. Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will feel a sense of integrity. Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. These individuals will attain wisdom, even when confronting death. ...read more.

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