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Examine the sociological theories and patterns and trends in healthcare.

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Introduction

´╗┐Jessica Bascombe Unit 7: Sociological Perspectives for Health & Social Care P1: Explain the principal sociological perspectives Functionalism: Perspectives view illness as a form of deviance and ill people are seen as performing a social role (sick role) if people are declared ill specific right and responsibility comes with this new role the rights associated with the sick role include: * Too be exempt from normal social obligation * To be cared for * Taking all steps to get better * Co-operating with medical staff to get better The concept of the sick role was created by sociologist theorist Parson (1951) he had argued that individuals can adopt the ?sick role? professionals such as Doctors are a key role in diagnosing illness and then defining if an individual is truly ?sick? the sick has a right/obligations essentials e.g.: the sick individual has the right to not go to work, school, college or any social duties although they have the obligation to seek medical professional help and advice to then return to normal full health asap this is the way functionalist view of dealing with ill health in society it ensures the functioning of society. Parsons (1951) had also argued he saw a family as a pivotal in society that their basic functions are: * The primary socialisation if children * Stabilisation of adult personalities such as looking after the male breadwinner and nurturing adults Marxism: Is an economic political theory by which law is considered an instrument of oppression and control and which the ruling class uses against the working class Marxism holds at its core a critical analysis of capitalism and a theory of social change the powerful and innovative analytical methods Marx introduced have influenced a broad range of disciplines Marxism was created by a sociologist theorist Karl Marx (1818 ? 1883) he had believed that there are basically 2 social classes in capitalist societies the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat who labour to the owners of the production for wages Marxist ...read more.

Middle

as there is an increase of those who may be mixed race a majority of ethnic groups that may reside in inner city cares which is located with poor housing, pollution and high rates of unemployment meaning that it is a difficult to understand whether the poor health and the arise on illness is due to poverty or ethnicity there are also varies reasons to poor health and they are factors that may contribute to this due to ethnicity problems e.g.: language can be a barrier limiting the full use of the health services also in the Asian community women are hesitant in being examined by a man doctor this can be a barrier improving the patients health carers may take own responsibility in understanding and acknowledging the religious, cultural beliefs and patients care needs may not be fully met meaning that the individual is at risk of ill health Social Class: Is essential when reading the pattern of health and illness as it can identify those with longer life expectancy as it can identify those with longer life expectancy as it can vary according to social groups The Black Report by Townsend at (1980) is very powerful study in the modern health the study clearly provides explanations based on the relationship between the social and environment factors in regards to health and illness while focusing on the life expectancy. The study has also showed significant evidence of those individuals in the upper social class as having a longer life expectancy and having better health than those in the lower social group. The Black Report showed 4 main types of explanations that may explain the differences in the levels of illness and life expectancy which may be experienced by different social groups many tourist were caused by the individual financial state and one living conditions The Black Report explained the 4 possible sociological differences which were the statistical artefact, natural or the social selection, cultural or behavioural including material and structural explanations. ...read more.

Conclusion

Men are also much prone to suffering and dying from heart diseases, bronchitis, lung cancer and accidents or other violent deaths. Between Women however breast cancer is very common cause of death between aged under 65 in the UK they are also much more likely to use health care facilities and tend to look after themselves more than men by e.g.: regularly visiting the dentist for a simple check-up. Genetic Explanation Nature: One of the keys is the genetic explanations that women suffer from ill health due to biological differences women often need to consult doctors about pregnancy, menstruation, menopause and contraception where as men tend to suffer and die from heart disease till at least the age of 50 The Artefact Explanation: This explanation looks at the statistics which are constructed so due to the role women have in a family they are more likely to be contact with health services compared to men however this does not mean they are less healthy than men The Behavioural or Cultural Explanation: This explanation shows that men are likely to die earlier in general due to them being more involved in risk taking behaviour which includes violence and are careless about their habits and diet men also tend to smoke and drink more alcohol then women Materialistic or Structural Explanation: This view is more focused on structural factors which affect the health of both genders it states that the differences in rates of mortality and in both genders are results of their different roles in society their positions and experiences e.g.: most women just accept the responsibility of having to look after the children the health of the others in the family. A lot of feminist writers argue on the gender inequalities like poor pay and more exposure of poverty and poor housing mostly between single mothers these are the materialistic issues which are the focus of the feminist ideas. Men however work more in hazardous environments such as mining, construction industry, fishing, militaries, factories which use heavy machinery. ...read more.

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