• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Examine the sociological theories and patterns and trends in healthcare.

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐Jessica Bascombe Unit 7: Sociological Perspectives for Health & Social Care P1: Explain the principal sociological perspectives Functionalism: Perspectives view illness as a form of deviance and ill people are seen as performing a social role (sick role) if people are declared ill specific right and responsibility comes with this new role the rights associated with the sick role include: * Too be exempt from normal social obligation * To be cared for * Taking all steps to get better * Co-operating with medical staff to get better The concept of the sick role was created by sociologist theorist Parson (1951) he had argued that individuals can adopt the ?sick role? professionals such as Doctors are a key role in diagnosing illness and then defining if an individual is truly ?sick? the sick has a right/obligations essentials e.g.: the sick individual has the right to not go to work, school, college or any social duties although they have the obligation to seek medical professional help and advice to then return to normal full health asap this is the way functionalist view of dealing with ill health in society it ensures the functioning of society. Parsons (1951) had also argued he saw a family as a pivotal in society that their basic functions are: * The primary socialisation if children * Stabilisation of adult personalities such as looking after the male breadwinner and nurturing adults Marxism: Is an economic political theory by which law is considered an instrument of oppression and control and which the ruling class uses against the working class Marxism holds at its core a critical analysis of capitalism and a theory of social change the powerful and innovative analytical methods Marx introduced have influenced a broad range of disciplines Marxism was created by a sociologist theorist Karl Marx (1818 ? 1883) he had believed that there are basically 2 social classes in capitalist societies the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat who labour to the owners of the production for wages Marxist ...read more.


as there is an increase of those who may be mixed race a majority of ethnic groups that may reside in inner city cares which is located with poor housing, pollution and high rates of unemployment meaning that it is a difficult to understand whether the poor health and the arise on illness is due to poverty or ethnicity there are also varies reasons to poor health and they are factors that may contribute to this due to ethnicity problems e.g.: language can be a barrier limiting the full use of the health services also in the Asian community women are hesitant in being examined by a man doctor this can be a barrier improving the patients health carers may take own responsibility in understanding and acknowledging the religious, cultural beliefs and patients care needs may not be fully met meaning that the individual is at risk of ill health Social Class: Is essential when reading the pattern of health and illness as it can identify those with longer life expectancy as it can identify those with longer life expectancy as it can vary according to social groups The Black Report by Townsend at (1980) is very powerful study in the modern health the study clearly provides explanations based on the relationship between the social and environment factors in regards to health and illness while focusing on the life expectancy. The study has also showed significant evidence of those individuals in the upper social class as having a longer life expectancy and having better health than those in the lower social group. The Black Report showed 4 main types of explanations that may explain the differences in the levels of illness and life expectancy which may be experienced by different social groups many tourist were caused by the individual financial state and one living conditions The Black Report explained the 4 possible sociological differences which were the statistical artefact, natural or the social selection, cultural or behavioural including material and structural explanations. ...read more.


Men are also much prone to suffering and dying from heart diseases, bronchitis, lung cancer and accidents or other violent deaths. Between Women however breast cancer is very common cause of death between aged under 65 in the UK they are also much more likely to use health care facilities and tend to look after themselves more than men by e.g.: regularly visiting the dentist for a simple check-up. Genetic Explanation Nature: One of the keys is the genetic explanations that women suffer from ill health due to biological differences women often need to consult doctors about pregnancy, menstruation, menopause and contraception where as men tend to suffer and die from heart disease till at least the age of 50 The Artefact Explanation: This explanation looks at the statistics which are constructed so due to the role women have in a family they are more likely to be contact with health services compared to men however this does not mean they are less healthy than men The Behavioural or Cultural Explanation: This explanation shows that men are likely to die earlier in general due to them being more involved in risk taking behaviour which includes violence and are careless about their habits and diet men also tend to smoke and drink more alcohol then women Materialistic or Structural Explanation: This view is more focused on structural factors which affect the health of both genders it states that the differences in rates of mortality and in both genders are results of their different roles in society their positions and experiences e.g.: most women just accept the responsibility of having to look after the children the health of the others in the family. A lot of feminist writers argue on the gender inequalities like poor pay and more exposure of poverty and poor housing mostly between single mothers these are the materialistic issues which are the focus of the feminist ideas. Men however work more in hazardous environments such as mining, construction industry, fishing, militaries, factories which use heavy machinery. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Healthcare section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Healthcare essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Evaluate different sociological explanations for patterns and trends of health and illness in two ...

    3 star(s)

    Because this social class group is such a small and declining group, it is pointless to compare them to other social classes. Other reports, - Acheson Report - however, attempted to bring the two lowest social classes together in order to create a bigger working class.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    I will be explaining the patterns and trends within social groupings such as Social ...

    3 star(s)

    A comparison to higher of coronary heart disease. Evidence for a link between race and ill health can be hard to study because there difficulties identifying a individual's race type. A proportion of people from smaller ethnic groups live in areas of deprivation in inner- city areas with linked pollution, poor housing and unemployment, there can be difficulties

  1. Equality, diversity and rights

    The children's at 2005 will prevent death of innocent children which has been caused by unsafe guardians or parents, if the child has been abused by a parent or a carer this will be lended as discrimination and offence towards the child and the children's act will then be involved

  2. Compare patterns and trends of health and illness in three different social groups.

    Most ethnic minority groups have a shorter life expectancy and have higher infant mortality rates. This could be linked to the social economic situations faced by any migrant workers. Language and cultural barriers can limit the use of health services.

  1. Health and Social Care Unit 3 Health and Well being

    This document outlines the Government's determination to continue to work towards the original ambition ? to halve the rate of teenage pregnancy that existed in 1998 when the first phase of the Strategy was launched. The strategy's targets are: 1.

  2. Explain patterns and trends of health and illness among different social groupings.

    Patterns of ethnic inequalities in health vary from one health condition to the next. For instance, BME groups tend to have higher rates of cardio-vascular disease than White British people do, but lower rates of many cancers. 3. Ethnic differences in health vary across age groups, so that the greatest variation by ethnicity is seen among the elderly.

  1. Public Health: How are current patterns of ill health monitored? How have current patterns ...

    Cancer: the amount of people who have cancer in England is monitored by reviewing the recorded admissions to hospitals where cancer was the reason for the admission. It is important to note that the statistics of these records only date back to 2008 so do not represent the cancer

  2. Unit 7 P2 AND M1 explain different sociological approaches to health and ill ...

    This shows us that functionalists view health as a requirement of a functional society; this is because if a certain amount of people are ill society cannot function. The Marxist approach to health and ill health Marxist theory is concerned with the way in which the dominant economic structure of

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work