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Explain key characteristics and concepts of Humanistic Therapy, Psychodynamic therapy & Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy

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´╗┐Lisa Chinnery Unit 2 1.1 Explain key characteristics and concepts of Humanistic Therapy, Psychodynamic therapy & Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy Humanistic Therapy The foundations of the humanistic approach provide the client with a deeper understanding of who they are, what they feel and the opportunity to explore the possibility of creating personal choices. It encourages self-awareness and self-realisation. Humanistic therapy is used for anxiety, low self-esteem, bereavement, depression, stress management, loss or relationship issues. The key characteristics are; Congruence ? Genuineness, the counsellor shows honesty and openness toward the client, not putting on a front, they are equals. Empathy ? Accepting the client for who they are, not judging them them whatever they say or do will allow the client to open up. Unconditional Positive Regard ? Putting ourselves in the clients shoes, if the client feels, we are right there with them and know how they are feeling it will help them along the way, knowing that they are not alone with how they are feeling and where they are in their mind. Environment ? A safe environment is needed for the client to open up and carry on along their journey, they should be seen in a secure, private, comfortable space that allows them the freedom to open up without the worry of outside influences. Also, that their sessions are within the boundaries of the data protection act so whatever they say will go no further. ...read more.


The third level is Love & Belonging which are psychological needs. Only when a person is physically healthy are they able to accept these needs. The fourth level Esteem is achieved when we can accept what we have accomplished, giving us confidence and respect for ourselves, then we can accept respect from others. At the top of the pyramid is Need for Self-Actualisation, which occurs when an individual reaches a state of harmony and understanding. Maslow?s thinking was original ? most psychologists before him had been concerned with the abnormal and the ill, he wanted to know what constituted positive mental health. Joseph Luft and Harrington Ingram (Designed Johari Window in 1955) This tool was devised by psychologists Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham in the United States in 1955 when they were looking at how groups worked. It is a simple and useful tool for illustrating and improving self-awareness, and mutual understanding between individuals within a group. Luft and Ingham called their Johari Window model ?Johari? after combining their first names, Joe and Harry. The first quarter is the Open Area or 'area of free activity'. This is the information about the person - behaviour, attitude, feelings, emotion, knowledge, experience, skills, views, etc - known by the person ('the self') and known by the group ('others'). The second quarter is the ?Blind Area? this is what is known about a person by others in the group, but is unknown by the person him/herself. ...read more.


He believed that the three core conditions of Carl Rogers?s theory should be present to help clients through his three stage model. He suggested that in addition to providing the core conditions, counsellors may need to help clients make decisions, clarify and set goals, and to support them with implementing their action. His goal setting model is; Stage One ? The present scenario The aim of stage one is to help clients understand themselves and their problem, to set goals and to take action achieving the goals set. The counsellor helps clients to tell their story, to focus (being specific), and to develop insight and perspectives. A key skill that needs to be present during stage one is that of ?active listening?, this includes using paraphrasing, open questions and by reflecting the feelings of their client. ?The clients goal is self-exploration: the counsellors goal is responding? Stage Two ? Creating new scenarios and setting goals The aim of stage two is to help clients examine their problem. They should think how it could be handled differently and should be encourage to develop their powers of imagination. The counsellor helps the clients develop choice and commitment to change. During stage two the counsellor should extend the active listening and advance the understanding empathy. The ?deeper empathy? of stage two should deal with feelings and meanings that have not surfaced and are not normally obvious. ?The clients goal is self-understanding: the counsellors goal is to integrate understanding? Stage Three ? Helping clients act ...read more.

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Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

This essay states that it will look at Humanistic, Psycho dynamic and Cognitive approaches to therapy but actually only covers the first area.

The work is good and well researched but isn't always applied in a therapeutic way. It describes the theory but does not explain how it is used in therapy.

This could be simply rectified by using some case studies as examples and describing how the therapy worked.


Marked by teacher Sam Morran 18/07/2013

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