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Explain the values of the cognitive perspectives in supporting individuals. Using Piagets and Kellys theories on cognitive development

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Introduction

Unit 8: Assignment 8.5 P5: Explain the values of the cognitive perspectives in supporting individuals. 8.5a: Using Piaget's and Kelly's theories on cognitive development, describe how people think. Piaget, a Swiss philosopher and psychologist, was one of the first psychologists to show how children's thinking develops from infancy through to adolescence. For example, Piaget showed that babies have to learn an idea of object permanence, that things continue to exist even through the child cannot see them, whereas other children take this for granted. He would show desirable toys to an infant, and then cover it with a cloth. Some children showed signs of confusion or upset, which were interpreted as showing that they thought the toy had disappeared. One of Piaget's most famous experiments was about conservation. A child would be shown some liquid in a clear container. The container is short and wide, and the child can see the liquid in the container. The experimenter then pours the liquid from the short, wide container into the tall thin container and it rises higher. ...read more.

Middle

big red bricks, small red bricks, big and small blue bricks. They are also beginning to grasp the idea of conservation. Their thinking is not yet abstract. It is based on things that are real concrete, which might be objects or actual experiences. * 11-16: Formal operation this is abstract and logical thinking. The children or young people are not limited to concrete thinking. They can form ideas that are not based on their own experiences and they can run through ideas in their heads. They can consider alternatives and can also think deductively, drawing conclusions about particular cases from general principles. Piaget's theory has been very influential in education, particularly in nursery and early primary. Piaget stressed that young children are active learners. You cannot tell them what they need to know; instead they need to work this out for themselves. So Piaget's theories are often used to support the idea of active, play-based learning. Assignment 8.5b Describe how cognitive behaviour therapy works to help people who are suffering from conditions such as depression, stress and anxiety. ...read more.

Conclusion

Cognitive work of this type can improve self-esteem and reduce outbursts which are triggered by lack of understanding of requirements of a given situation for example, having to wait in turn for a meal. Cognitive therapy is also used to support people with post-traumatic stress disorders. PTSD occurs as the result of an individual being exposed to a traumatic event in which they experience, witness or are confronted with actual or threatened death or serious and where the person's response is intense fear, helplessness or horror. PTSD can become apparent through the person's experiencing other psychological or emotional symptoms such as anxiety disorders, depression, phobias, and substance abuse or relationship problems. The person will utilise a range of defence mechanisms to cope with the psychological or emotional effects of trauma, such as rationalisation. However, their schemas that relate to that event will have become wounded or damaged and this will make it difficult for them to make sense of the world on its previous terms. Old belief systems will be resurrected as they try and make sense of what they have experienced and their own identity as a results of events. ?? ?? ?? ?? Sana Parkar ...read more.

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