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External influences of Cigarette smoking and diseases caused by Cigarette smoking

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Introduction

External influences of Cigarette smoking and diseases caused by Cigarette smoking Cigarette smoking has many different effects on the society in which we live. Some of these effects are more direct, such as diseases that arise from smoking cigarettes. Others are more indirect external effects, such as social and ethical implications on a society. There are over 4000 chemicals in cigarette smoke, including 40 known carcinogens. Past studies have led us to conclude that smoking has a direct correlation with lung cancer. The main compounds in cigarette smoke that are responsible for lung cancer are Tars. Other very commonly linked diseases of smoking are heart disease, emphysema, gangrene (leading to amputation), reduced fertility in men and women and many other diseases. Cigarette and tobacco smoke, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure and diabetes are the four major independent risk factors for coronary heart disease that you can modify or control. Cigarette smoking becomes a much greater risk factor when combined with any of the above major risk factors for CHD. Smoking increases blood pressure, decreases exercise tolerance and increases the tendency for blood to clot. The main reason that cigarette smoking greatly increases the risk of coronary heart disease is that it decreases the amount of HDL (High-density lipoproteins), which is the good form of Cholesterol as opposed to the bad form that is LDL (Low-density lipoproteins). ...read more.

Middle

Most people would argue that it is morally incorrect, and therefore unethical, to smoke or sell cigarettes. This is due to a number of factors - a commonly argued case is that of the person who simply wants the right to be able to go about his/her daily life without coming near to any cigarette smoke or fumes, or even inhaling it, as is the case with passive smoking. It is believed that passive smoking can trigger similar effects in people who passively smoke to those who smoke cigarettes, such as lung cancer and other respiratory diseases. Asthma can be caused and made worse by passive smoking in children, which would be seen as very unethical. Another question of ethics is whether the health service should be funding the treatment necessary for smokers, who contribute the same amount of tax as those who do not smoke. Should non-smokers be paying to treat people who smoke? Companies are now also beginning to exploit third world countries, unethically. Tobacco manufacturers are always concerned about increasing their sales, as the industry needs 300 new smokers everyday just to keep level and replace the smokers who die. Tobacco companies market their products in less developed countries where there is no education, in order to get youngsters hooked on cigarettes, and then make a profit from their deteriorating health. ...read more.

Conclusion

Even though it is true that around 80% of the cost of a packet of cigarettes goes towards British tax, it is estimated that the NHS spends about �1.5 Billion a year treating diseases caused by smoking. Other costs include payment of sickness or invalidity benefits to people suffering from such diseases. Other than this, smoking has a negative environmental effect, as it releases polluting gases into the atmosphere, which can be damaging. Also, discarded cigarette butts can cause dangerous fires, in which the environment is damaged aswell as other things. Many developing countries grow tobacco for export but do not grow enough food crops to feed their own people. Other than this, the land on which tobacco is grown can become unfit for growing food, as tobacco plants need a lot of chemical fertilisers. Also, thousands of hectares of forest are cut down to provide firewood to dry the tobacco leaves. One tree is cut down every fortnight for each person who smokes twenty cigarettes a day. In terms of technology, cigarette smoking has helped scientists invent innovative new products, such as nicotine patches, as discussed earlier. Nicotine patches deliver up to 1mg an hour, which passes through the skin into the bloodstream to stop the craving. Another technological advancement is the invention of Nicotine Gum, which can be chewed by smokers to release a low dose of nicotine. ...read more.

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