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Four models of disability with barriers and assessing them.

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Unit 26 - Caring for individuals with additional needs In this assignment I am going to describe four models of disability; Social, Medical, Normalisation and the Holistic approach. I shall include barriers and explain how and why they occur and give examples. Finally I am going to assess different barrier which exist for people with additional needs. The term 'additional needs' is used by health and care professionals and it means that some children and adults may need other things to help them; it could be that their first language isn't English so they need an interpretator, or it might be that they can't walk very far so they need a wheelchair. It is a wide range of things and it doesn't make anyone different- we all have additional needs, some are more needed than others. The social model of disability was created by disabled people themselves; it was a first response to how society reacts to them being 'different', but also of how doctors and those in the health care profession treat them because they have a disability. The model says that society is the problem, those with disabilities aren't the sufferer, the person is capable to look after themselves and make decisions and that they are equal to those without disabilities. For example; (using the case study of Hannah), from the social model's point of view Hannah isn't a disabled person; it is the environment that makes her life difficult as it doesn't always provide what she needs to live a 'normal' life. She might not be able to live in a house that she wants to live in due to it not being adapted to her needs; lower sinks, baths, hand rails, stair lifts, living in a bungalow may be too expensive, she may need more care- badly designed buildings may also be a factor. ...read more.


Normalisation played a key role in movements both for education and for empowerment meaning that those with disabilities are in charge of what they do within education- whether they go to a special school or a main stream school. The medical model attracted much criticism from disabled rights groups who claimed it oppresses those with disabilities, because of this, people started to think differently about disability and a new model emerged this is called the Social Model. The social model says that society puts up barriers that prevent disabled people from participating; this links into the Normalisation model because the social model wants to provide a normal life for those with disabilities and the social model wants social acceptance from society for those who have disabilities. There are several advantages and disadvantages of Normalisation. Advantages are that the model wants everyone to be 'normal' and no one to be better than another, due to a disability. The model emphasises the importance of equality, they want to make sure that people aren't just having a normal as possible life, but making sure they are treated equal as well. The people who believe in Normalisation, can work with those who believe in the social model and work together and they could together make points stronger and ensure people aren't labelled etc. Disadvantages are that some people are happy with their life and living it their way, they may not want someone coming in and making them fit this 'normal' category that is seen as the best way to live. A major disadvantage is that the model was developed as a reaction to the policies that degraded those with disabilities, not because people wanted those with disabilities to live a 'normal' life and to be treated equal. ...read more.


This is normalisation for the person as it is allowing the person to lead a normal life and go to college, and also the social model- it allows them to socialise. The medical model relates to the attitudes that are displayed towards those with disabilities and additional needs, this could be stereotyping towards someone because they are in a wheelchair, patronising them and making them feel like they are a child because they aren't 'normal', just focusing on their disability and what the disability means they can't do, rather focusing on what they can do. People's attitudes against disability are rather one sided, like the medical models labels people, but the social model says that society is the problem- society needs to adapt to those with disabilities. A barrier that those with additional needs or a disability could face is communication. A barrier to communication could be that they don't speak English or know limited English; they might need to get a translator in to help with this. If someone has Autism, they will need to use PECs, (picture exchange communication system), this is a non-verbal way of communicating and is effective for those who have autism, this is overcoming a barrier to communication. Financial barriers could be that the person who is in a wheelchair, can't afford to pay for a ramp outside their house themselves so they may need help of the local council, they might not have the chance to go on holiday as it could be expensive. Rest bite care could mean that the family will get a break from having to look after them and they could go on trips and have choice. Lack of choice could mean that they can't do everything that they want to do, say if they want to go shopping and the place doesn't have public access for them this would mean they can't go there. ...read more.

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