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Good Hygiene Practice

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Sherri Coltman                    BTEC LEVEL 2 Yr12 Unit 2                  Mrs Quay

Good Hygiene Practice.image01.pngimage02.png

For this task I have been asked to identify basic hygiene principles in a childcare setting. These include principles of cross-infection, disposal of waste, food handling, handling body fluids, the issues concerning the spread of HIV and hepatitis and encouraging good hygiene practise in children.

What is cross infection?

Cross infection is an infection spread from one organism to another because of a poor barrier protection. It is a common and important mode of infection with many varieties of organisms, including bacterial diseases, viral hepatitis A and some other faecal-oral infections, such as scabies, fungus infection, pinworms, and roundworms. Cross infection can occur in day-care centres, schools, nursery’s, prisons and other settings where individuals and groups interact with one another. Cross infection is a potential problem in all-institutional settings.

Infections can come from touching dirty soil which wild animals have left faeces of some type. Insects are another way of transmitting infections because if food is left un-covered a fly could land on it and contaminate it.

Viruses can be spread through contaminated water and food. Also viruses like HIV can be spread through your blood stream if your blood has come into contact with someone who is infected with HIV. Food, which is undercooked, can give a child Salmonella or E.coli, which can also be given to another child if they have eaten the same food. It is not advisable to drink tap water in another country because they don’t all have a good water system for cleaning the water. The drinking result of contaminated water is diarrhoea.

Bacteria can be transmitted from animals and the air. Wild animals like birds carry bacteria in their faeces and on their body itself. If a child touches the faeces with out knowing they could not only make themselves ill they could make another child ill. The air carries a lot of bacteria because when we are in room with no windows open and people have colds all the bacteria are floating around in the classroom.        image13.png

What we could do to prevent cross infection.

  • Wash your hands after going to the toilet, changing babies, touching animals and before dealing with food.image16.png
  • Make sure you dispose of dirty nappies and other solid items correctly.
  • Cover your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze and dispose of the tissue probably.
  • Cover any cut of grazes that you have and use latex’s gloves when dealing with children.
  • Never use food that has gone past its use by date.
  • Make sure that children do not let animals lick their faces and that they wash their hands after touching them.
  • Check to make sure that animal faeces have not contaminated gardens and sand pits.
  • Make sure hair is tied back when dealing with food and were a hair net if you have long hair.
  • Were plastic gloves when dealing with blood.

These points are important because when dealing with waste products, body fluids and many more things, which can cause cross infection, these points can help you to stop cross infection.

How to dispose of waste products. image17.jpg

  • If you are changing a baby’s bum you should always make sure that the changing mat is clean and that you are wearing gloves. To dispose of the nappy you should put it in a nappy bag which is resalable and put it clinical waste bags. Always wash your hands and the changing mat after you have dealt with the child. Just in case the child has an infection, which is contagious.  This is so that there is no unwanted smells or germs left and if any gets on you or the matt it is cleaned off.
  • To dispose of a sanitary towel or tampon you should role it up in a bit of tissue and then put it back in its rapper then dispose of it in a sanitary bin and wash your hands after would. You should do this so there is no sanitary towel or tampon left open for young children to touch.  image18.jpg
  • Food waste should be disposed in a sealed bin so children cannot get into it and eat things they are not meant too.
  • The disposers of tin cans and glass should be raped up and put straight into the outside bin so they are not accessible to children and to prevent infections. This is because if there is a jagged edge, a child could cut their selves on it and it could lead to the cut getting infected.
  • Bins should be empted regularly to prevent the spreading of infections. If bins are not empted regularly you can get flies and maggots around and in the bin and if a child touches the rubbish they could easily put their hands in their mouths.
  • Animal products such as a food bowl should always be kept clean and should be stored separately from the children’s things. This is so that a child does not eat or touch their food bowl accidentally.
  • If a child has been sick clean the sick up straight away and use a clean cloth and a disinfectant like Detol to wipe down were they have been sick. This is so there are no harmful bacteria left behind. Have a sick bowl or bucket handy. This is so there is no smell left behind and it is easy to clear up.
  • Oil and fats should not be disposed of down a sink as this could block drains and cause them to start smelling. They should not be poured down the sink because if the sink becomes blocked it will start coming back up the sink.
  • Paper can be recycled and use for animal bedding.
  • If someone has not reached the toilet in time and they have urined on the floor, wipe it up and change the person’s clothes. Always use gloves when dealing with waste products. This is so there is no smell and the person is clean and so you can keep your self-safe from infections.
  • Dispose of soiled gloves by turning them inside out and place them in a sealed bag. This is so the object on the gloves is not on show.  

How to handle and store food correctly.

In a childcare setting it is important to store and prepare food correctly because if it is not stored or prepared correctly there could be an outbreak of food poisoning.

  • Check ‘use by’ and the ‘best before’ date on brought food and throw out food that is out of date.image19.jpg
  • Make sure the fridge is the right temperature which is between 0 °C-5°C by using a fridge thermometer.image20.png
  • Cool food down before storing it in the fridge.
  • Do not leave food lying around at room temperature.
  • Cover the food as soon as possible and store it in the fridge straight away.
  • Keep raw fish and meat in separate containers.
  • Store raw foods at the bottom of the fridge so that the juice doses not drip on to other foods.
  • Never freeze food that has begun to thaw.
  • Date food, which has been stored in the fridge and freezer.
  • Always wash hands carefully before preparing food and do not wear jewellery. image21.png
  • Wear an apron and tie hair back.
  • Cover any cuts with a coloured waterproof dressing.
  • Do not touch your nose or mouth and do not cough or sneeze over food.
  • Never smoke in a room were food is prepared it is against the law.
  •  You should always keep your work place clean- floor, work surfaces.
  • Sink, utensils, clothes and rubbish bins should be cleaned regularly.
  • Bins should always be covered.
  • Disinfect work surfaces before preparing food.
  • Always wash the tops of tins before opening.image22.png

Poor practices in the handling and storage of food can lead to an outbreak of food poisoning - even in the cleanest of workplaces.

How to handle body fluids.

Blood and body fluid precautions involve the use of protective barriers such as gloves, gowns, masks, and eye protection. These reduce the risk of exposing the skin to infectious fluids. Health care workers should always use protective barriers to protect themselves from exposure to another person's blood or body fluid.

Gloves protect you whenever you touch blood, body fluids or broken or scraped skin. The use of gloves also decreases the risk of disease transmission from needle sticks.

  • Always wear gloves for handling items or surfaces soiled with blood or body fluids. image03.png
  • Wear gloves if you have scraped, cut, or chapped skin on your hands.
  • Change your gloves after each use.
  • Wash your hands immediately after removing your gloves.
  • Wash your hands and other skin surfaces immediately after they come in contact with blood or body fluids.
  • Masks and protective eyewear such as goggles or a face shield help protect your eyes, mouth, and nose from droplets of blood and other body fluids. Always wear a mask and protective eyewear if you are doing a procedure that may expose you to splashes or sprays of blood or body fluids.
  • Gowns or apronsprotect you from splashes of blood or body fluids. Always wear a gown or apron if you are doing a procedure that may expose you to splashes or sprays of blood or body fluids.image04.png

What are body fluids?

Body fluids are found in the bodies of men and/or women. Some may be found in animals as well. They include fluids that are excreted or secreted from the body as well as fluids that normally are not. These respective fluids would include:

  • Bile
  • Blood and blood plasma
  • Earwax
  • Breast milkimage05.png
  • Mucus- snot
  • Pus
  • Saliva
  • Skin oil
  • Semen
  • Sweat
  • Tears
  • Urine
  • Vomit
  • Feces, while not generally classed as a body fluid, are often treated similarly to body fluids, and are sometimes fluid or semi-fluid in nature.

Staff would safely deal with body fluids by placing them in a container with a lid and storing them in a special bin.

Issues concerning the spread of HIV and hepatitis.

What is HIV?

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening infections.Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells. The four major routes of transmission are unprotected sexual intercourse, contaminated needles, and transmission from an infected mother to her baby at birth, or through breast milk. Screening of blood products for HIV in the world has largely eliminated transmission through blood transfusions or infected blood products.image06.jpg

What is hepatitis?

Hepatitis implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. The condition can be self limiting, healing on its own or can progress to scarring of liver.image07.jpg

The issues concerning HIV and hepatitis are:

  • The number of people, including children, who have been infected with HIV and hepatitis is raising.

There are many reasons reasons why a child may be infected, but the important thing is to minimise the risk to yourself and your children. If you follow good hygine practises, you will not be at risk from any child with the viruses who has unfortuantly contracted it. These infections are carried in the blood or in other boodly fluids. Another person can only be infected with the viruses by direct contact with that fluid or through an open wound.

HIV is not transmitted by casual physical contact, coughing, sneezing, kissing, sharing toilets, washing facilities, using eating utensils or consuming food and drink handeled by someone who has HIV. It is not spread by mosquetios or other insect bites. If you wear gloves while changing nappies and carrying out first aid, and always keep cuts and grazes covered you will not be at risk of infection.

Encouraging good hygiene pratice in children.

It is important to encourage good hygine practise in children so that they can learn from their mistakes and it will help them to do good hygiene practice in the future because they can teach other children and their own children when they are older.

To engourage children into good hygine practice you should do the following:

  • Wash their hand before eating.
  • Wash their hands after going to the tolit.
  • Don’t let them eat food of the floor.
  • After playing out side they should wash their hands.
  • Wash their hand after touching animales.

These will encourage the children and yourself as an adult to do good hygeine practise.

Binliography.

  • Childrens care learning and development.
  • Early years care and education.image08.png
  • www.google.com
  • www.wikepidia.com
  • clip art

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 Unit 2    Task1              Keeping Children Safe.                                    06/03/2008

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