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Health 101 Midterm1 Revision Notes - Health Inequalities, Immune System and Infection.

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Introduction

LEC 3-4 * Health inequality: Systematic difference in health between groups of people due to * Biological differences * Personal choices, socio-economic status, differential access to health care * Health inequity: A healthy inequality that is deemed unfair à moral imperative to try to correct * Health disparity: Inequality of social disadvantages LUNG CANCER * Primary Individual=smoking cessation counseling population=anti smoking publicity campaigns * Secondary individual=chest x-rays population= * Tertiary individual=follow up exam to test for recurrence or metastasis population=improve access to high quality care especially in underserved neighborhoods ST INFECTIOUS DISEASE HEPATITIS C * Primary Individual-counseling on safe drug use or safer sex Population-programs to discourage needle sharing or promote condom use * Secondary Individual-screening for HCV infection among drug abusers or sex workers Population-establish universal testing system for HCV in high risk groups * Tertiary Individual: therapy to cure infection and prevent transmission Population: similar to primary METABOLIC SYNDROME * Primary -individual: nutrition and exercise counseling -population: built environment favorable for active transport(bike lines, walking trails, parks) * Secondary -individual: screening for diabetes -population: community level weight loss programs * Tertiary -individual: cardiac rehabilitation services -population: multi-disciplinary clinics and programs Metabolic Syndrome-insulin resistance (pre diabetes) Sir Geoffrey Rose -British epidemiologist, drew a distinction between the causes of individual cases and causes of patterns of incidence in a population, proposed preventing a disease by shift of entire population distribution of a risk factor more efficient than focusing interventions solely on people at high risk(primary prevention) * Protection: Primordial and primary prevention activities. ...read more.

Middle

* Occurrence of mutations * Inherited: Present in germ or egg cells * Acquired: DNA of individual somatic cells during lifetime (e.g. mutations that lead to cancer) * Polymorphisms: normal variations in DNA(affects our susceptibility to diseases) * Exogenous factors: environmental factors, such as smoking, sunlight, radiation (X-rays), or chemical agents à All called mutagens * Endogenous factors: errors during DNA replications, toxic by-products of cellular metabolism (i.e. free radicals-toxic substances in DNA) Mendelian-single gene disorders 1. Molecular genetic diseases-sickle cell,cystic fibrosis 2. Metabolic genetic disorder-alteration of protein in enzyme—PKU,galactosemia 3. Nucleotide repeat disorders-Huntington disease * PKU-phenylketonuria leads to mental retardation by killing neurons in brain * Breast Cancer-Mutations in BRCA1(chromosome 17) or BRCA2(chromosome 12) gene LEC 10 Pathogen-source of infection means of transmission-hand washing Resevoir-treatment portal of enetry-condoms Portal of exit-condoms,masks new host-immunization ïthis chain can be broken from public health measures by being clean(don’t do this stuff) Leukocytes-white blood cells produced in born marrow * Neutrophils-ingests pathogens to the areas of invasion * Marcophages-big eaters they are scavengers eating pathogens and worn out cells * Dentritic cells-stay in tissue and eat pathogens and active immune cells * Natural killer cells-destroy infected and cancerous cells IMMUNIOLOGICAL DEFENDERS: Lymphocytes:T cells and B cells T cells:helper,killer,suppressor t cell B cell-lymphocytes produce antibodies some T and B have memory cells * Antibodies produced by B cells have complementary surface markers that bind to specific antigens Innate/Natural response * Inflammatory response * Mast cells release histamine * Dilation of blood vessels * Heat, swelling, and redness Phase 1 * Dendritic cells arrive, consume foreign cells, and relay information to helper T cells, which rush to respond Phase 2 * Helper T cells (CD4+) ...read more.

Conclusion

paralysis and death * Rabies * Infection of the central nervous system * Human papillomavirus * A variety of types HPV cause warts * Some types cause cervical cancer à Vaccine Hepatitis * Several forms that cause inflammation of the liver * Hepatitis A virus (HAV) * mildest form * transmitted by an infected person or food or water contaminated by sewage. * Hepatitis B virus (HBV) * transmitted sexually * Hepatitis C virus (HCV) * direct contact with infected blood via injection, drug use * 85% become chronic carriers * Can develop chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, or liver cancer. * Most common reason for liver transplants * AZT is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in HIV treatment * There are antiviral drugs but they cannot provide a cure meaning cannot get rid of the virus inside of use Malaria * Caused by a a protozoan of the genus Plasmodium * Recurrent attack of severe flu-like symptoms * Injected into bloodstream of host by mosquitos * Most prevalent infectious disease worldwide * 350 – 500 million new cases each year! * > 1 million deaths each year à children < 5 Prions * Fatal degenerative disorders of the central nervous system have been linked to prions * Lack DNA or RNA and consist only of protein * Their presence in the body does not trigger an immune response * They have an abnormal shape and form deposits in the brain * May trigger normal proteins to change their structure to the abnormal, damaging form * Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies * Sponge-like holes in the brain * Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy ...read more.

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