• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Health 101 Midterm1 Revision Notes - Health Inequalities, Immune System and Infection.

Extracts from this document...


LEC 3-4 * Health inequality: Systematic difference in health between groups of people due to * Biological differences * Personal choices, socio-economic status, differential access to health care * Health inequity: A healthy inequality that is deemed unfair à moral imperative to try to correct * Health disparity: Inequality of social disadvantages LUNG CANCER * Primary Individual=smoking cessation counseling population=anti smoking publicity campaigns * Secondary individual=chest x-rays population= * Tertiary individual=follow up exam to test for recurrence or metastasis population=improve access to high quality care especially in underserved neighborhoods ST INFECTIOUS DISEASE HEPATITIS C * Primary Individual-counseling on safe drug use or safer sex Population-programs to discourage needle sharing or promote condom use * Secondary Individual-screening for HCV infection among drug abusers or sex workers Population-establish universal testing system for HCV in high risk groups * Tertiary Individual: therapy to cure infection and prevent transmission Population: similar to primary METABOLIC SYNDROME * Primary -individual: nutrition and exercise counseling -population: built environment favorable for active transport(bike lines, walking trails, parks) * Secondary -individual: screening for diabetes -population: community level weight loss programs * Tertiary -individual: cardiac rehabilitation services -population: multi-disciplinary clinics and programs Metabolic Syndrome-insulin resistance (pre diabetes) Sir Geoffrey Rose -British epidemiologist, drew a distinction between the causes of individual cases and causes of patterns of incidence in a population, proposed preventing a disease by shift of entire population distribution of a risk factor more efficient than focusing interventions solely on people at high risk(primary prevention) * Protection: Primordial and primary prevention activities. ...read more.


* Occurrence of mutations * Inherited: Present in germ or egg cells * Acquired: DNA of individual somatic cells during lifetime (e.g. mutations that lead to cancer) * Polymorphisms: normal variations in DNA(affects our susceptibility to diseases) * Exogenous factors: environmental factors, such as smoking, sunlight, radiation (X-rays), or chemical agents à All called mutagens * Endogenous factors: errors during DNA replications, toxic by-products of cellular metabolism (i.e. free radicals-toxic substances in DNA) Mendelian-single gene disorders 1. Molecular genetic diseases-sickle cell,cystic fibrosis 2. Metabolic genetic disorder-alteration of protein in enzyme—PKU,galactosemia 3. Nucleotide repeat disorders-Huntington disease * PKU-phenylketonuria leads to mental retardation by killing neurons in brain * Breast Cancer-Mutations in BRCA1(chromosome 17) or BRCA2(chromosome 12) gene LEC 10 Pathogen-source of infection means of transmission-hand washing Resevoir-treatment portal of enetry-condoms Portal of exit-condoms,masks new host-immunization ïthis chain can be broken from public health measures by being clean(don’t do this stuff) Leukocytes-white blood cells produced in born marrow * Neutrophils-ingests pathogens to the areas of invasion * Marcophages-big eaters they are scavengers eating pathogens and worn out cells * Dentritic cells-stay in tissue and eat pathogens and active immune cells * Natural killer cells-destroy infected and cancerous cells IMMUNIOLOGICAL DEFENDERS: Lymphocytes:T cells and B cells T cells:helper,killer,suppressor t cell B cell-lymphocytes produce antibodies some T and B have memory cells * Antibodies produced by B cells have complementary surface markers that bind to specific antigens Innate/Natural response * Inflammatory response * Mast cells release histamine * Dilation of blood vessels * Heat, swelling, and redness Phase 1 * Dendritic cells arrive, consume foreign cells, and relay information to helper T cells, which rush to respond Phase 2 * Helper T cells (CD4+) ...read more.


paralysis and death * Rabies * Infection of the central nervous system * Human papillomavirus * A variety of types HPV cause warts * Some types cause cervical cancer à Vaccine Hepatitis * Several forms that cause inflammation of the liver * Hepatitis A virus (HAV) * mildest form * transmitted by an infected person or food or water contaminated by sewage. * Hepatitis B virus (HBV) * transmitted sexually * Hepatitis C virus (HCV) * direct contact with infected blood via injection, drug use * 85% become chronic carriers * Can develop chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, or liver cancer. * Most common reason for liver transplants * AZT is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in HIV treatment * There are antiviral drugs but they cannot provide a cure meaning cannot get rid of the virus inside of use Malaria * Caused by a a protozoan of the genus Plasmodium * Recurrent attack of severe flu-like symptoms * Injected into bloodstream of host by mosquitos * Most prevalent infectious disease worldwide * 350 – 500 million new cases each year! * > 1 million deaths each year à children < 5 Prions * Fatal degenerative disorders of the central nervous system have been linked to prions * Lack DNA or RNA and consist only of protein * Their presence in the body does not trigger an immune response * They have an abnormal shape and form deposits in the brain * May trigger normal proteins to change their structure to the abnormal, damaging form * Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies * Sponge-like holes in the brain * Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Healthcare section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Healthcare essays

  1. Physiological Disorders

    However, since he has been diagnosed with diabetes he had to make a lot of changes to his lifestyle, they included changes to the food he eats (cutting on sweet food with high level of sugar) he was recommended to eat more fruits and vegetables because they are good source of many vitamins and minerals.

  2. Describe the cause of infection- infection prevention and control

    (Ayling.P, 2007) Thrush is an example of a localised fungal infection and it is normally experienced as an infection of the vagina. It is caused by the fungus Candida albicans and it can be spread by sexual intercourse. In males, the fungus on the penis is called balaitis and it is characterised by white itchy spots, however it is easy to treat.

  1. Communicable and Non-Communicable Disease: Tuberculosis and Cystic Fibrosis

    mortality rate for TB was equivalent to approximately 4700 deaths per day14. Around nine thousand new cases of TB are reported in the UK every year.15 Often referred to as a 'disease of poverty', TB is most readily transmitted in those conditions associated with less affluent areas, such as overcrowding, poor ventilation and malnourishment.

  2. Strageties for prevention of disease

    As mentioned before, what causes cancer is different for every individual, therefore a wide range of potential causes were identified, and have been set milestones within the 10 year plan. "Health education can be targeted at the whole population, or at different groups of the population" it is obvious in

  1. MRSA. MRSA stands for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus. Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a common type ...

    This is to stop the germ spreading. If you are not in hospital, it is still very important to take basic hygiene precautions. This includes covering cuts and broken skin with waterproof plasters and washing hands frequently and thoroughly. Treatment Treatment depends on two factors: * What antibiotic resistance the

  2. HC01 - Revision of ALL sections

    These attitudes shape the way people think and perceive the world. * Prejudices are negative attitudes that are generally disapproved or socially unacceptable. Stereotyping - oversimplified generalisation of a group of people that are culturally acquired. Lack of Motivation - Having few reasons to treat people well, can be caused by underpaid, never paid constantly criticised.

  1. Health and Disease

    Discrimination - Discrimination and prejudice results in many vulnerable groups and individuals experiencing barriers to accessing the services and support they need. These barriers can be tracked back to the values, attitudes and beliefs that affect behaviour and the way society is organised.

  2. Assess how the suggested measures to manage an outbreak of infection meet legal requirements ...

    The Health and Safety Act clearly states how crucial it is for staff to be given training on how to use the equipment. Seen at Legesation.gov.uk (online: 2012). The extent of information, instruction and training vary with the complexity and performance of the kit.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work