• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17

Heart Disease

Extracts from this document...


Healthy and not-so-healthy factors Factors Nancy Jim Alcohol Moderate alcohol consumption helps protect against heart disease by raising HDL (good) cholesterol and reducing plaque accumulations in your arteries. Alcohol also has a mild anti-coagulating effect, keeping platelets from clumping together to form clots. On the other hand, drinking more than three drinks a day has a direct toxic effect on the heart. Heavy drinking, particularly over time, can damage the heart and lead to high blood pressure, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, and stroke. Heavy drinking puts more fat into the circulation in your body, raising your triglygeride level (Spence). Risks for heart disease were lowest for the most frequent drinkers. For example, men who drank only one day a week had a 7% reduced risk, while men who drank daily had a 41% reduced risk (Medical News Today). Overweight Being an unhealthy weight, even if your cholesterol is under control and your blood pressure is normal, puts you at elevated risk for serious cardiovascular problems and/or diabetes. If you are obese, the risk is far greater than if overweight. Smoking Non-smoker; however, she should hold Jim to his promise to quit, since he is putting her at risk for respiratory infection, asthma, and/or lung cancer. A person's risk of heart disease and heart attack greatly increases with the number of cigarettes he or she smokes. Smokers continue to increase their risk of heart attack the longer they smoke. People who smoke a pack of cigarettes a day have more than twice the risk of heart attack than non-smokers. Jim is also putting his friends and family at risk with the second hand smoke. Secondhand smoke has been classified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a known cause of respiratory infections, asthma, and cancer in humans (American Lung Association). Exercise Regular physical activity helps prevent heart disease by increasing blood flow to your heart and strengthening your heart's contractions so that your heart pumps more blood with less effort. ...read more.


build up with in the inner lining of an artery of her heart. With Nancy's age, this build up of plaque could harden one of her arteries. With her triglycerides and LDL (bad cholesterol) level above the normal ranges, it is safe to say that there is some plaque buildup within her heart. The plaque can grow bulky enough to drastically reduce the blood's passage through an artery, but most of the damage takes place when they become fragile and rupture. Plaque that rupture will cause blood clots to form that can hinder blood flow or break off and travel to another part of the body. If either happens and blocks a blood vessel that feeds the heart, it causes a heart attack. If it blocks a blood vessel that nourishes the brain, it causes a stroke, and if blood supply to the arms or legs is diminished, it can cause difficulty walking and ultimately lead to gangrene (American Heart Association). With Nancy's high LDL and triglycerides, she is a walking heart attack waiting to happen. Respiratory Infection, Asthma, and/or Lung Cancer Since Jim is the smoker in the family, Nancy is at risk to. Secondhand smoke has been classified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a known cause of respiratory infections, asthma, and cancer in humans (American Lung Association). Osteoporosis With her sister diagnosed with osteoporosis and with her mother's passing from complication following a broken hip, Nancy is most likely to get osteoporosis as well. Her age and hysterectomy will play a role in osteoporosis. In women, the sex hormone estrogen protects bones. If a woman goes through menopause early, the risk of osteoporosis increases. The same is true if the ovaries removed; that is because your ovaries produce most of the body's estrogen. With having a hysterectomy, her body has lost the major source of her estrogen production; she is still making small amounts of estrogen through her liver, adrenal glands, and the breasts. ...read more.


With smoking, damage is done to the interior walls of the arteries. This damage permits accumulation of cholesterol to gather and hinder blood flow (Mayo Clinic). Nancy presents with this risk factor even though she is not a smoker, but Jim's secondhand smoke will cause the same amount of damage. High blood cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels are a major cause for angina. With a high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level and triglyceride level, can produce deposits of plaque within the bodies' arteries (Mayo Clinic). Nancy's LDL and triglyceride counts are well outside the normal range (LDL - 161 mg/dL and triglyceride - 220 mg/dL). It is not stated if Nancy has diabetes; however, with a glucose count of 128 mg/dL (outside of the normal range) she could have diabetes. With this high glucose count, her body is not using insulin properly; this misuse can lead to diabetes. Diabetes can accelerate the plaque buildup within the arteries and negatively affect blood cholesterol levels (Mayo Clinic). Consumed in moderation, alcohol could aid in raising high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and can have a protective effect against a heart attack. However, excessive drinking can damage the heart muscle, raise blood pressure, and increase triglyceride levels (Mayo Clinic). Nancy could be drinking heavily while on the cruise. When Jim and Nancy where walking around the deck of the boat, her body started to feel the stress within her arteries due to plaque buildup. Nancy's symptoms lessen at rest, because she is starting to calm her body down. When Nancy was sitting on the deck of the boat, her body was relieved from the stress of walking. Her heart started to slow down and slowly started to pump more deoxygenated blood into the lungs so that it could be re-oxygenated. This helps her lungs to "open up" and take in more oxygen. This increases her O2 saturation, which brings vital oxygen to the heart. At rest, Nancy's arteries are under less pressure. This less pressure helps her heart properly refill with deoxygenated blood, so that the process can start over again. This will slowly bring her body back to homeostasis. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Healthcare section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Healthcare essays

  1. Communicable and Non-Communicable Disease: Tuberculosis and Cystic Fibrosis

    the range of means of TB prevention available for a particular group is directly related to the vulnerability of said group to the disease. In the United Kingdom for instance, where incidence rates are relatively low, the vaccine has been offered on a risk assessment basis since 2005.

  2. In the following essay I will be talking about type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is ...

    After 15 years of diabetes, approximately 2% of people become blind, and about 10% develop severe visual impairment. * Diabetes is among the leading causes of kidney failure. 10-20% of people with diabetes die of kidney failure. * Diabetic neuropathy is damage to the nerves as a result of diabetes, and affects up to 50% of people with diabetes.

  1. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Family Interventions for Psychosis.

    Furthermore, a recent meta- analysis has suggested that the benefit of new atypical anti-psychotics is less than that previously thought (Geddes 2000). A number of systematic reviews and meta- analytical studies of psychological treatments for schizophrenia have been performed over recent years (Mari & Streiner 1994; Mojtabi et al 1998;

  2. 1.2 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    guidelines on the management of this condition (British Thoracic Society, 1997) and is the title of a major British textbook on the subject (Calverley & Pride, 1996). Chronic bronchitis has been classified into three forms; simple bronchitis, defined as hypersecretion of mucous; chronic or recurrent mucopurelent bronchitis in the presence

  1. Free essay

    binge drinking

    Research suggests that drunkenness is seen as socially unacceptable in Southern Europe, particularly among women; family structure and dynamics, and historical factors may account for this difference in drinking cultures Social factors Binge drinking is influenced by a range of personal and social motives that may differ according to age group.

  2. Diabetes-types,symptoms, prevention. Diabetes and sports

    But there is a possibility that it can lead you to Type 2 diabetes. The fourth type of diabetes is known as Prediabetes. As the name suggest, a person has a prediabetes when he has high glucose level but not enough to cause Type 2 diabetes.

  1. In this essay I will be explaining both types of diabetes mellitus, how diabetes ...

    It's only when more serious symptoms appear on people with type 2 diabetes (such as blurred vision) that they begin to seek medical help and a test for diabetes. It is crucial to diagnose the diabetes quickly as soon as you begin notice these symptoms, as this will prevent any

  2. Health and Disease

    Anti - discriminatory practices Good practice in care work will recognise and challenge inequality through anti discriminatory working Policies and procedures Policies and procedures are important in setting standards of behaviour and protecting service user's rights. Actively promote equality in social and health care Equality in social and health care

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work