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Human reproduction should not be controlled

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Human reproduction should not be controlled Humans have many ways in which to manage their own reproduction. They can choose to prevent or assist fertilisation f an egg by a sperm. (1) The artificial control of the menstrual cycle in females has two main purposes: Firstly as a contraceptive device by preventing ovulation and secondly as a fertility device by stimulating ovulation. (2) All human societies have at one time or another developed mechanisms of birth control. The impact of too many children on the family, tribe, or population has led to methods as diverse as infanticide and the sophisticated pharmacology of the contraception. (4) Contraception refers to the use of methods ort devices that prevent conception. There are many contraceptive methods available including physical barriers (such as condoms) that prevent egg and sperm ever meeting. The most effective methods involve chemical interference in the normal female cycle so that egg production is inhibited. ...read more.


A number of studies have reported a strong association between cervical cancer and long-term use of Ocs. Most known risk factors for breast cancer are attributable to some form of oestrogen overexposure (5) Family planning and the use of contraception have arisen ethical issues within different countries. More and more people in targeted countries are coming to realise that family planning is not in their best interest, and that the conspicuous anti-fertility devices and drugs are comparable to landmines in a demographic war. Over the past 4 years a backlash has been building against western "birth control imperialism". Opposite to population control programmes on the part of Islamic leaders in Pakistan, for instance, has dramatically slowed the efforts of family planning. (7) On the other hand millions of women in developing countries who would prefer to postpone or avoid pregnancy find the use of contraception useful. These women have an "unmet need" for contraception. ...read more.


While clomipfene citrate only rarely results in pregnancy with more than twins, hMG and FSH carry a greater risk of causing multiple births. Because these drugs are given continuously, they constantly stimulate the ovaries to develop mature eggs. About 15% to 25% of FSH cycles result in multiple pregnancies. As a rule, the greater the number of foetuses, the higher the risk of premature labour. Babies born prematurely are at increased risk for a number of medical problems. Some studies have suggested a link between fertility drugs and an increased long-term risk of developing ovarian cancer. If too many babies are conceived, the removal of one or more foetuses (multiple pregnancy reduction) can aid survival of the remaining foetuses. However, this presents serious emotional and ethical challenges for many people. (11) Having looked at the facts concerning the use of hormones to prevent or assist pregnancy in females, I find it hard to decide if I'm "against" or "for" the use of hormones by humans to control the female sexual cycle, because each side of the argument has its positive and negative effects and applications. ...read more.

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