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Identify the appropriate methods of prevention and control for a series of infectious and non-infectious diseases

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Select a series of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Identify the appropriate methods of prevention and control. M3 Cystic Fibrosis-UK's most life-threatening disease. Affects 7,500 people and over 2 million people carry the gene that causes it. If 2 carriers have a child, the baby has a 1:4 chance. Communicable/Non-communicable: Non-communicable. Mode of spread: Cystic fibrosis can't be spread, as it isn't a communicable disease. The exact cause of CF is a single faulty gene found on chromosome 7, which controls salt and water movement in and out of cells within the body. To develop CF a baby has to inherit the faulty gene from both parents. Prevention/Control: As yet there's no cure for CF or any way of preventing it. However, since the faulty gene has been identified, much work and research is being done to try to find ways to either repair or replace this gene through gene therapy. Treatment can help people to live with cystic fibrosis. It can also prevent or reduce long-term damage from infection and other complications. High-energy foods, enzyme supplements, and vitamin and mineral supplements help a person with CF to get the nutrients they need. Regular exercise is important to keep the body fit and healthy. Daily physiotherapy and breathing exercises help to keep the body healthy and to prevent excessive build up of mucus in the lungs. Antibiotics and other medicines are used to control lung infections and inflammation. If respiratory failure occurs, a lung transplant may be necessary. Sickle-Cell Anaemia-A disorder, which affects haemoglobin in red blood cells (HbS)-chronic anaemia. Communicable/Non-communicable: Non-communicable. Mode of spread: Sickle-cell anaemia can't be spread, as it isn't a communicable disease. Everyone has two copies of the haemoglobin gene, one from each parent. Those with sickle cell anaemia have two HbS genes. Prevention/Control: It's important for sickle cell patients to try to keep healthy. They need to maintain a good diet, supplements of folic acid, vitamin D and zinc, avoiding smoking and alcohol. ...read more.


Communicable/Non-communicable: Communicable. Mode of spread: Can be caused by bacteria, which can be caught by eating food contaminated with the bacterium, e.g. unpasteurised milk, raw meat, undercooked poultry and eggs, etc. it is also possible to catch salmonella from someone else who is infected and from pets and farm animals. Also, inadequate thawing from freezing is a common source. Prevention/Control: Prevention may include: * Poultry and meat should be well cooked, not pink in the middle. Uncooked meats should be kept separate from cooked and ready to eat food to avoid cross contamination. * Vegetables and salads should be thoroughly washed before eating. * The Chief Medical Officer advises against recipes with uncooked or lightly cooked eggs. Adequate cooking of eggs, until the yolk is set, kills salmonellas. * Take care that food does not become contaminated after cooking. * Hands, chopping boards, knives and other utensils should be washed thoroughly in hot soapy water immediately after handling raw meat and poultry. * Hands should be washed before handling different food items and before eating or drinking and after going to the toilet and also after contact with animals particularly pets and their bedding. * Those who are ill should not prepare or handle food Treatments/controls may include: Non-drug * Attention to dehydration, usually just oral rehydration fluids. * Attention to hand washing to prevent spread to others. * Admission to hospital may be required in infants younger than 3 months or younger than 12 months with a temperature in excess of 39�C. Drugs Antibiotics do not shorten the illness but may prolong the carrier stage. There is also a problem of multiple antibiotic resistance, however sometimes anti-diarrhoea or anti-spasmodic drugs may be required. Poliomyelitis-is caused by a virus. Attacks the nervous system and can cause total paralysis very quickly. There is no cure for this disease. Communicable/Non-communicable: Communicable. Mode of spread: Polio is transmitted through contaminated food, drinking water, faeces and swimming pool water. ...read more.


Eating at least five portions of fruit and vegetables every day is thought to protect against this and many different cancers through the benefits of the antioxidant vitamins and minerals they contain. Moderate amounts of exercise may also protect against bowel cancer. The main treatment is surgery. Usually, the piece of bowel that contains the cancer is removed and the two open ends are joined back together. If the two sections can't be joined back together, the bowel can be brought out through the abdominal wall. Although this procedure is more likely after removal of a tumour in the rectum, it's not always necessary and may only be temporary. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are increasingly being used to treat bowel cancer in addition to surgery as an additional helping treatment, especially in more advanced tumours. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)-one of the commonest diseases to affect the heart is coronary heart disease (CHD). It's usually caused by atherosclerosis, a build up of fatty materials within the walls of the arteries. Communicable/Non-communicable: Non-communicable. Mode of spread: CHD can't be spread, as it isn't a communicable disease. Although an unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, diabetes, high blood pressure and smoking all increase the risk the risk of getting CHD. Prevention/Control: The best way to prevent coronary heart disease is to make sure that your 'bad cholesterol' (LDL) level is low and that your 'good cholesterol' (HDL) level is high. There a number of ways you can do this, including: eating a healthy and balanced diet, being more physically active, keeping to a healthy weight, giving up smoking, reducing your alcohol consumption, keeping your blood pressure under control, keeping your diabetes under control and by taking any medication that is prescribed for you. Treatment of coronary heart disease may include: Medicines-such as anticoagulants, beta blockers or ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors. Surgical procedures-surgery may be needed to open up or replace blocked arteries. These surgeries might include coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass, heart transplant, or laser surgery. ?? ?? ?? ?? Viktoria Robins Public Health, Unit 12 1 ...read more.

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