• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Immunisation. The human body comes into contact with millions of germs and is also exposed to them. However the body does not get ill from these organisms because of the immune system

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Immunisation The human body comes into contact with millions of germs and is also exposed to them. However the body does not get ill from these organisms because of the immune system, the immune acts as the bodies' defense against infectious organisms and other invaders which comes into contact with the body. Everybody has an inbuilt immune system and the function of it is to defend the body against germs and microorganisms. Germs are also described as pathogens and foreign invaders which include bacteria, viruses and fungi. The immune system is made up of many networks of special cells, such as tissue, proteins and organs. The immune system does a great job keeping people healthy and preventing infections by attacking foreign organisms that invade our systems and cause diseases. Pathogen A pathogen is a substance a gene which produces and causes many diseases and micro organisms in the body, it is an infectious organism. However the human body comes into direct contact with pathogens everyday however the immune system recognises it as a intruder and destroys the infectious organism which then is no longer harmful and isn't capable to cause harm to the body any longer, when a person comes into contact with a pathogen his is considered as exposed, however when the pathogen enters the body and has produced a bacterium in the body this is then considered as being infected by a pathogen and this is when the natural immunity stimulates and then reacts. ...read more.

Middle

On the other hand plasma cells are a class of antibodies which are specifically there to produce cells however there are also a clear liquid in the blood but unlike the lymph it carries red blood cells. B lymphocytes are formed to specifically engulf and bind antigens for instance bacteria's and viruses.However B cells belong to a white blood cell known as the lymphocytes, the are designed specifically for a certain antigen so it can bind to a particular molecular structure. B-cells play a major role in the immune system as well as the T-cells. The most important purpose of it is to make specific antibodies directed at particular antigens. T-cells are also known as T-lymphocytes which are white blood cells, T cells also belong to lymphocytes, they are to protect the body from infection and diseases, and the most important function of the T-cell is to guard the body against infections. Lymphocytes are divided into two vital divisions which are T-cells and B-cells, Lymphocytes are a clear liquid that carries only the white blood cells around the body it is very similar to Plasma cells. The lymph flows through all parts of the body picking up the fluid around cells and carrying it back to large veins near the heart. The lymph also carries the white blood cells to the other areas in the body which may need it. ...read more.

Conclusion

Exposure to infection Active artificial l immunity Active artificial immunity occurs when a specific produced antigen is intentionally put into an individuals system, the procedure for this is called vaccination, the vaccine is to stop usually targeted to a specific illness and targeted to improve immunity and stop it from getting involved with a specific illness. Artificially by vaccination Passive natural immunity Passive natural immunity occurs through natural means for instance a relationship between a mother and the child, when the antibodies are passes from her body to the baby's body through breast feeding; this provides a short term protection for the baby after it has been born, another way antibodies are passed from body to body is through the placenta and into the fetal blood. Passive artificial immunity Passive artificial immunity is made use of when short term protection is needed immediately, this is done by taking out antibodies from one individual and inserted into another, and the term antiserum is used for this procedure. The difference between active and passive immunity The differences between active and passive immunity are that active immunity originally produces the antibodies in order to invade the antigens; it becomes immune naturally due to the primary immune response. However passive immunity is when antibodies are transferred from one individual to another which then provides short term passive immunity, it becomes immune artificially. Immunisation ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Healthcare section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work