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Life Span And Development - The Development Of Babies And Infants

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Introduction

Life Span And Development Chelsea Mason The Development Of Babies And Infants Fertilisation Of The Ovum: During intercourse millions of sperm are released into the vagina. As ovulation approaches, the cervical mucus becomes watery allowing the sperm to swim up the vagina through the cervix. Only about 2,000 sperm will be strong enough to reach the uterus and the fallopian tube. In order for fertilization to occur, one of these sperm must attach itself to the ovum and penetrate its outer surface. The fertilized ovum will then continue travelling down the fallopian tube, taking several days until it reaches the uterus. When it arrives, it attaches itself to the lining of the uterus and continues to grow. Early Stages Cell Division: There are two types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis. Meiosis is the type of cell division that creates egg and sperm cells. Mitosis is a fundamental process for life. During mitosis, a cell duplicates all of its contents, including its chromosomes, and splits to form two identical daughter cells. Because this process is so critical, the steps of mitosis are carefully controlled by a number of genes. When mitosis is not regulated correctly, health problems such as cancer can result. The other type of cell division, meiosis, ensures that humans have the same number of chromosomes in each generation. Growth And Development In The Womb: In the very early weeks, the developing baby is called an embryo then from about eight weeks onward it is called a foetus meaning "young one", three weeks from the first day of the last menstrual period the fertilised egg slowly moves along the fallopian tube towards the womb. The egg begins as one single cell the cell continually, by the time the egg has reached the womb it has become a mass of over 100 cells, this is called an embryo, once the embryo is in the womb it implants itself in the lining of the womb. The embryo now settles into the womb lining. ...read more.

Middle

One Year: At this age children usually co-operate with getting dressed, they can understand someone leaving and waving goodbye they demonstrate affection with kisses hugs shows signs of separation anxiety. Two Years: At this age children can show frustration by throwing a tantrum, separation anxiety usually decreases at this age most two-year-olds go through a period when they relate better to one parent at a time. Three Years: Children of this age have a vivid imagination they sometimes make up imaginary friends; they are less likely to suffer from separation anxiety. Between three and four years of age, children try to please their parents. Bonding: Bonding is a strong psychological and emotional attachment mothers feel for their baby it is different for every parent. Some mums immediately feel a rush of love for their newborn. Others, especially those who've had difficult labours, find the connection to their new baby isn't as instant as they'd hoped. Bonding for them is a process that takes several weeks, or even months. Ways Mothers Can Bond With Their Babies: * Strip off - dozens of studies have shown that skin-to-skin contact helps your baby develop and you to bond. Breastfeeding is an ideal time to do this, but you could also cuddle and enjoy baths together. * Get gazing - your baby's eyes may still be squinty but they can see just far enough to focus on your face. In fact, babies look at human faces longer than any other object. Hold your baby and look at her/him, see if you can find features that resemble yours. The more you get to know her/him, the faster you'll bond. * Change those nappies - nurturing your baby, feeding her/him, comforting her/him and changing her/his nappy will encourage a strong bond to develop between you. Social Development: At Birth: Newborns begin to smile in their first month. Six To Nine Months: At six to nine months of age along with an increased awareness of their surroundings, some infants this age also develop what is commonly referred to as stranger anxiety. ...read more.

Conclusion

At around 8-9 months, the baby begins to understand that objects continue to exist even if they cannot be seen this is known as object permanence and may explain why babies begin to protest when their carer leaves the room. Pre-operational 2-7 Years Children begin to use symbols to stand for things for example a piece of dough represents a cake language is also a way of using symbols, children also show egocentrism i.e. a belief that everyone will see the same thing as they do or have the same thoughts, Piaget felt that children in this stage were easily tricked by appearance. Concrete operational 7-11 Years Piaget felt that this stage marked a significant change in children's logic they were less easily deceived by appearances and could apply rules to their strategies to their thinking the term "concrete" is used because Paiget felt that children were helped in their thinking when they could do and see things in practical ways e.g. physically counting out items. Stages Of Learning: (Four Years): * Enjoys counting up to twenty. * Talks about things in the past and future. * Can sort objects into groups. * Have increased memory skills for e.g. he can remember a particular event, such as when his aunties and uncles visited several months previously. * Often confuses fact with fiction. Stages Of Learning :(Five Years): * Produces drawings with good detail for e.g. a house with windows, a door, a roof and a chimney. * Asks a lot of questions. * Can give his full name, age and address and often his birthday. * Talks about the past, present and future, with a good sense of time. Staged Of Learning: (Six Years): * Begins to develop concepts of quantity... distance, area, time, weight, length etc. * Is able to distinguish the difference between reality and fantasy. * Names days of the week in order. * Can arrange objects in order of size. * Is able to print own name. * Tells month and day of birthday. Emotional Development: ...read more.

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