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Lymph is formed when the lymphatic system carries away waste from the tissue. The fluid that is left behind is lymph 2. Describe the structure & function of a lymphatic capillary

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Introduction

Lymphatic System 1. What is lymph and how is it formed Lymph is a milky fluid (straw coloured) and is made up of: * * Plasma * Proteins * Waste products * Toxins * Fats * Oxygen * Carbon dioxide * Lymphocytes * urea Lymph is formed when the lymphatic system carries away waste from the tissue. The fluid that is left behind is lymph 2. Describe the structure & function of a lymphatic capillary These vessels are found in all body tissues except the central nervous system, which has a circulatory system known as the cerebrospinal system. The lymphatic capillaries run together to form larger ducts that intertwine about the arteries and veins. The lymph in these larger ducts, which are similar to thin, dilated veins, is moved along by the muscular movements of the body as a whole; it is prevented from moving back through the ducts by valves located along them at intervals. The ducts from the lower limbs and abdomen come together at the dorsal left side of the body to form a channel, known as the cisterna chyli, that gives rise to the chief lymphatic vessel of the body, the thoracic duct. This vessel receives lymph from the left side of the thorax, the left arm, and the left side of the head and neck; it empties into the junction of the left jugular and left subclavian veins. ...read more.

Middle

Afferent lymphatic vessels deliver fluid into the nodes and leaves by way of efferent vessels. Germinal centers are sites for lymphocyte production and are important with respect to immune response. The lymphocytes mature into T-lymphocytes or B-lymphocytes which produce plasma cells that secrete antibodies Found in "clusters" in the pelvis region, underarm, neck, chest, and abdomen 7. Draw a diagram showing the locations of the lymphatic nodes of the head, legs & arms 8. Describe the structure & functions of the spleen and thymus gland Spleen The spleen is a flattened, oblong, glandlike organ, situated in the upper left abdominal cavity, in contact with the pancreas, the diaphragm, and the left kidney, and supported by bands of fibres that are attached to the peritoneum (the membrane lining the abdominal cavity). The spleen varies in size but, in adult humans, is about 13 cm (5 in) long, up to 10 cm (4 in) wide and 3.8 cm (1.5 in) thick, and weighs about 200 g (7 oz) The spleen is the largest lymphatic organ of the circulatory system and acts as a blood filter to defend against microorganisms that succeeded to penetrate the blood system. Whereas lymph nodes are immunologic filters of lymph, the spleen is the immunologic filter of the blood. The aged erythrocytes are broken down and destroyed by macrophages in the spleen The spleen has a dense connective tissue capsule, with connective tissue trabeculae that divide the organ into incomplete compartments. ...read more.

Conclusion

The most common first symptom of Hodgkin's disease is a painless enlargement of the lymph nodes (a condition known as swollen glands) located in the neck, above the collarbone, in the underarm area, or in the groin. If cancer involves the thymus (a gland of the immune system that is larger in children and located in the middle of the chest), pressure from this gland may trigger an unexplained cough, shortness of breath, or problems in blood flow to and from the heart. About a third of patients have other nonspecific symptoms, including fatigue, poor appetite, itching, or hives. Unexplained fever, night sweats, and weight loss are also common. Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) There are about 500 new cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma diagnosed each year in children in the United States. It may occur at any age during childhood, but is usually rare before age 3. NHL is slightly more common than Hodgkin's disease in children younger than 15 years of age. In non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, there is malignant growth of specific types of lymphocytes (a kind of white blood cell that collects in the lymph nodes). Malignant growth of lymphocytes is also seen in one of the forms of leukemia (acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or ALL), which sometimes makes it difficult to distinguish between lymphoma and leukemia in children. In general, people with lymphoma have no or only minimal bone marrow involvement, whereas those with leukemia have extensive bone marrow involvement. ?? ?? ?? ?? Stephanie Powell 16/11/04 AJ007E/A - 1 - ...read more.

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