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Major Body System Report. The trunk of the human body is divided into three cavities; the thorax, abdomen and the pelvis.

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Introduction

Major Body System Report. The trunk of the human body is divided into three cavities; the thorax, abdomen and the pelvis. A fibro-muscular layer, the diaphragm, separates the thorax (upper chest) from the abdomen. The pelvis lies beneath the abdomen but there is no physical separation. The oesophagus, aorta and vena cava penetrate through the diaphragm. The following systems are major systems within the body. The Renal System. The Renal system is made up of kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra, all of which are involved in the formation and release of urine. The human body has two kidneys which are organs shaped like a bean; they produce urine to get rid of the body's unwanted waste. The Ureters transport the urine to the bladder; these are two tubes that emerge from the kidneys to the bladder. The Bladder stores the urine until it is excreted via the urethra. The sphincter muscle controls the release and pressure of urine. A secondary function of the kidneys is contributing to the control of blood pressure and production of red blood cells. Blood is supplied to the kidneys via the renal arteries which are smaller vessels that lead off from a much larger vessel, the aorta. The renal veins take blood away from the kidneys and back to the vena cava. The kidneys The amount of water within a human body is regulated by the kidneys. The more water we drink the more urine is produced, although when we are dehydrated we produce less water so the quantity of urine is less than average. The Kidneys also produce Renin and Erythropoietin. Renin is a hormone which is important in regulating blood pressure, and erythropoietin helps to produce red blood cells. The bladder The main function of the bladder is to store urine and release the urine when the nervous system transmits impulses to the sphincter muscle which controls the release of urine.

Middle

Immunisation vaccinations can be given to help the immune system to be able to defend the body in case of invasion. The measles, mumps and rubella vaccination (MMR) prepare the immune system by injecting a small dose of the virus into the body so that the white blood cells can create anti-bodies to destroy the foreign material; the immune system creates anti-bodies to fight off infection and then remembers the anti-bodies for if and when the micro-organism attacks the body again. The lymphatic system: In potential sources of infection that are associated with the immune system such as the tonsils, adenoids, spleen and thymus gland are specialised areas in which lymphoid tissue occurs. Lymphatic capillaries are located between body cells in the tissue spaces. The lymphatic capillaries join to lymphatic vessels and then ducts such as the thoracic duct. The ducts take the collection of fluid that is composed within the vessels back to blood circulation. Every lymphatic vessel penetrates through one or more lymph nodes, there are hundreds of lymph nodes scattered throughout the body. Lymph nodes found in the neck/head are known are cervical lymph nodes. Axillary lymph nodes are located near the heart. There are lymph nodes in the mammary gland as well as the pelvis and lower limb. The Cardiovascular System: The cardiovascular system consists of: * The heart * Arteries, veins and capillaries * Blood. The heart is found in the thorax cavity between the lungs. The rib cage protects the lungs and heart from exterior damage. There is a thin film of fluid inside a tough membrane which prevents friction between the organs and the rib cage, this is called the Pericardium. The heart is slightly larger than a clenched fist in an adult - it is muscular pump. The primary function of the heart is to continuously pump blood around the body to cells - the blood is forced around the body through a network of blood vessels, made up of arteries, veins and capillaries.

Conclusion

that continue the digestion concentrating on the digestion of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. Absorption begins in the ileum which is the remaining part of the small intestine. The ileum has a large surface area due to the long length, folded sides and the villi covered epithelial cells that are further coated in microvilli. The increased surface area means that all nutrients from digested food can be absorbed. Excretion begins in the large intestine which comprises of the colon and the rectum. The function of the colon is to slow down the passage of food waste. During the stages of ingestion and digestion glands have secreted digestive enzyme juices onto the chyme turning the ingested food into a liquid substance. A lot of water is forced into the chyme and because the body cannot loose too much water the colon allows time for the body to absorb the left over water, Chyme and waste products are moved from the colon to the rectum by peristalsis. The function of the liver is to produce bile which travels through the bile duct to the duodenum. Bile is stored in the gall bladder for a short time and although has no enzymes, it contains salts that cause emulsification of lipids in the duodenum. The liver also removes glucose from the blood when it enters the small intestine. The liver breaks down amino acids to form glycogen and urea which is then transported through the bloodstream to the kidneys. The function of the pancreas is to secrete pancreatic juice that is rich in enzymes as well as to secrete alkaline salts which neutralise the acidity of the secretions made by the stomach. The pancreatic juice breaks food molecules into amino acids, glucose, fatty acids and glycerol so that the body can absorb the nutrients from the digested food. From all of the systems I have explained in this report without anyone of them the human body would not be able to function effectively to survive. The following table summarises the functions of each of the major body systems I have spoken of.

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