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Malaria assignment

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Introduction

Malaria Assignment Around 250 million people suffer from malaria; approximately 2 million people per year will die from malaria most of these deaths occur in children under six years of age. Falciparum malaria is possibly the most poisonous of them all and it is transmitted into the bloodstream via the female (anopheles) mosquito. Anopheles mosquitoes are the most poisonous of the four types. The parasite that causes malaria is particular considering their hosts are both humans and Mosquitoes. Also four parasite protozoa cause malaria disease. The parasites are responsible for malaria are the, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malaria. The Plasmodium falciparum is probably the most deadly of them all. The parasite goes through a series of changes and becomes capable of sexual reproduction, this occurs inside the mosquito's stomach. Gametocytes develop into gametes and fuse to form a zygote, after fertilisation the zygote transforms into a matile ookinate. Gametes are the sexual form of the parasite; they form inside the mosquito's stomach. Male gametocyte will produce up to eight sperm whereas as the female transforms into a single egg. ...read more.

Middle

After a week or so, the mosquito is able to infect another person. The infected mosquito stabs into an uninfected person consequently, the parasite inside the mosquito moves into the (host) human through the salivary glands, of the mosquito, whilst passing through the blood. A number of parasites travel directly into the liver and it is here that the parasites divide (in the liver cells hepatocytes) thus forming thousands of individuals. They pierce the liver's cells and schizogony occurs. Each sporozoite is capable of escalating to more than 10000 merozoites. The liver cells then rupture releasing the parasites back into the bloodstream where they enter the red blood cells. The parasite known as sporozoite, in the human host enters the red blood cells. However, some parasites reside in the liver, here in the liver cells they are hidden from the human immune system, thus the immune system cannot fight them, this is the technique parasites apply to evade the host's immune system. When the parasite is inside the red blood cells the merozoite breaks down the haemoglobin feeding off the amino acids and causes anaemia. ...read more.

Conclusion

Since the synchronous release of merozoites from numerous red blood cells, the person infected from malaria goes through a characteristic cycle of symptoms that match up to different phases in this so called erythrocytic sequence. Chapter 8 Possible immunity In controlling the disease, it is necessary to understand the evolution of the disease. Parasite antigens on the infected red cell surface are targets for naturally acquired immunity to malaria; therefore, designing a malaria vaccine requires recognizing the targets of the defensive immune responses, along with realising, which immune mechanisms will actually contribute towards destroying the parasite, and the resistance to clinical disease. Furthermore it is thought that people's genetics can help in identifying possible defending antigens. There is an enormous attempt going on about existing anti-malarial drugs also, trying to combine them so that they are more successful, thus delaying the start of resistance. Improved drug formulations are necessary; subsequently they can be used easily. Furthermore, there is a necessity for new and improved drugs to be made available; several scientists state that the drug called MalaroneTM has shown to be successful against fighting malaria in clinical trials, together as a treatment and a preventative. ...read more.

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