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mechanisms of fatigue

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Introduction

Exercise Physiology Task 4: Mechanisms of Fatigue In this assignment I will be listing the mechanisms of fatigue, including neuromuscular fatigue. I will be listing the role of metabolites, and identifying the role of oxygen and other factors in the recovery process. (Wilmore and Costill, 1988) described Fatigue as a general sensation of tiredness as well as a decrease in muscular performance. Muscular fatigue occurs in athletes after a tough training session. This description is very general and does not explain what causes fatigue. (Answers.com, 2005) believe fatigue is the decreased capacity or complete inability of an organism to function normally because off excessive stimulation. This description is better then the first as it states that excessive stimulation, even lack of sleep, will cause the body to fatigue. It is the body's way of saying it needs rest. (Gandevia et al., 1995; Hagberg, 1981; Hawley et al., 1997) describes fatigue as the inability to continue functioning at the level of one's normal abilities. This is also very general but it is clear in what it describes. Neuromuscular fatigue Neural fatigue Neural fatigue means a disruption of neuromuscular events. Fatigue occurs because of a decrease in calcium production. ...read more.

Middle

Therefore, a cool down is very important after any form of activity in order to maximise recovery. Failure to cool down adequately means that the levels of lactic acid will remain elevated. It is thought that this acidity level affects the pain receptors and contributes to muscle soreness which people may feel some times after having exercise. This muscle soreness, termed 'delayed onset of muscle soreness' (DOMS), is at its most uncomfortable 36 to 48 hours after exercise has ceased. Muscle glycogen stores must also be restored. This is attained through a high carbohydrates diet and rest, and can take several days to recover, depending on the intensity of the exercise. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) Oxygen debt is occasionally called EPOC. EPOC refers to the total oxygen consumed after exercise in excess of a pre-exercise baseline level. EPOC occurs when a person exercises at high intensity, when oxygen cannot be supplied by the anaerobic energy systems, which results in lactic acid production. When the person stops exercising, extra oxygen is breathed in order to break down lactic acid to carbon dioxide and water, to replenish ATP, phosphocreatine and glycogen, and to pay back any oxygen that has been borrowed from haemoglobin and myoglobin. ...read more.

Conclusion

Exercises of over 60 seconds, can overload the lactic acid system. This system adapts by: * Glycogen stores within muscles increased, due to increase in size or number of mitochodria. * Cells learn to use and store more rapidly * Increase in glycotic enzymes * Increase in lactate dehydrogenase aids convertion of pyruvic acid * Buffering capacity of muscle against lactic acid increased * Can work longer before hydrogen inhibits enzyme action Aerobic system This system requires oxygen and most adaptations from exercise occur in this system. There is no lactic acid and can even burn lactic acid as fuel. The main sources of fuels are complex carbohydrates and fats as fuels. When training this system you should Increase duration of the exercise then increase the intensity. This allows both the capacity to use and deliver oxygen to improve. Total work volume should be between 15-60 minutes for both continuous and interval training. Continuous training works best between 30-60 minutes. Interval training a rep may be between 10secs up to 7 minutes Work rest ratio is 2:1 so for 10 minutes work get 5 minutes rest. Training should occur at least every other 6 days and at most every second day. The training program should last between 3-6 weeks. ...read more.

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