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Much behaviour has implications for health and illness; select any one health (or health risk) behaviour and discuss both the implications for health and ways in which such behaviour may be changed

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Much behaviour has implications for health and illness; select any one health (or health risk) behaviour and discuss both the implications for health and ways in which such behaviour may be changed Enrolment number 02094290 Course: PL3S06 Health Psychology Lecturer: Sue Falkner Deadline: 18th May 2007 (resubmission) Word Count: 2029 Spell check and grammar Complete At the beginning of the century the main causes of mortality and morbidity were infectious diseases, mainly pneumonia and influenza (Gatchel et al 1986). There has been a shift in the cause of mortality and morbidity to more chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease and cancer. These diseases are strongly affected by the environment in which we live and subsequently the way we chose to behave within the environment. Gachel et al (1989) suggests that 50% of the ten leading causes of mortality are credited to life styles and habits. Such habits that impair health are known as behavioural pathogens. The United States of America has been linked with 350.000 deaths per year from heart disease, chronic lung disease and cancer alone. It has been reported that smoking has become one of the greatest threats to public health worldwide. Unhealthy behaviours are persistently resistant to change and therefore have a high relapse rate when the habits are attempted to be terminated. Intervention schemes have been developed in order to enhance quitting and reduce initiation. The Learning theory (also known as the gradient of reinforcement) notion is aimed at developing reward and punishment systems; it is linked to immediate reward or punishment of terminating a behaviour which is more effective in the short term than a delayed reward or punishment. Smoking is a consistent habit of satisfaction and avoidance of withdrawal whereby the immediate needs are satisfied and the withdrawal symptoms avoided, making smoking a difficult habit to quit. Action on smoking and health is a charity website set up to inform people of the dangers of smoking and provides helpful tips on how to quit. ...read more.


Nasal Spray can offer faster relief from withdrawal as the spray reaches the blood stream faster. Nicotine chewing gum can be used to reduce levels of withdrawal, however the addict needs to keep chewing the gum for a certain length of time and then place the chewing gum under the tongue for a period of time, causing frustration to many addicts and subsequent relapse. Tablets can be used, as prescribed by a doctor in which withdrawal can be reduced. Oral Inhalers and Lozenges can be used to distribute nicotine slowly through the body. The oral inhaler is thought to also cure the addiction of placing the cigarette to the mouth, however if the inhaler is successful in withdrawing from the nicotine the addiction of placing the inhaler or the cigarette to the lips may still occur. On April 2nd 2007 the Government brought the "no smoking ban" into Wales where individuals are forbidden to smoke in any public space that is over 50% enclosure. Restaurants, bars, clubs and the workplace have now obtained the authority to stop individuals smoking within their facility. Violations of the law can result in a �50 fine to the individual and a fine to the facility. This Law can reduce the risks to passive smokers and may also give smokers a strong incentive to quit. Social support plays a vital role in quitting behaviours, without the support and encouragement of others withdrawal can be a difficult and in some cases an impossible task. Riggotti (2002) suggests individual counselling can be conducted to change the way individuals think about smoking and focus on the positives and negative aspects of smoking, these should then be prioritised and encouragement made to quit. Zuh et al (2000) believes group therapy is the most effective and can be used to encourage individuals to sit down with other sufferers and talk through feelings and experiences. ...read more.


Gatenby, P. Glasgow, N. Mullins, R. McDonald, T.; Hurwitz, M. (2002) Which Clinical Subgroups Within the Spectrum of Child Asthma Are Attributable to Atopy? Chest 121;(1) 135-142 Powell, L. M and Chaloupka, F. J (2005). Parents, Public Policy, and Youth Smoking. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. 24(1).93-112. Raby, R. C. (2002) A Tangle of Discourses: Girls Negotiating Adolescence Journal Of Youth Studies 5 (4) 425-448 Rigotti, N. A (2002) Treatment of Tobacco Use and Dependence New England Journal Of Medicine346;(7) 506-512 Schoepp, D. D. (2001) Unveiling the Functions of Presynaptic Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors in the Central Nervous System Journal Of Pharmacology And Experimental Therapeutics 299 (1) 12-30 Shiffman, S. Johnston, J. A. Khayrallah, M. Elash, C. A. Gwaltney, C. J. Paty, J. A. Gnys, M. Evoniuk, G. De Veaugh-Geiss, J. (2000)The effect of bupropion on nicotine craving and withdrawal Psychopharmacology 148 (1) 33-40 Simons-Morton, B. Haynie, D. L. Crump, A. D. Eitel, P. Saylor, K. E. (2001) Peer and Parent Influences on Smoking and Drinking Among Early Adolescents Health Education And Behaviour 28 (1) 95-107 Tashkin, D. P (2001) Smoking cessation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Lancet 9268, (1)1571-1575 Taylor, R. Cumming, R. Woodward, A. Black, M. (2001) Passive smoking and lung cancer: a cumulative meta-analysis Australian And New Zealand Journal Of Public Health 25 (3),203-211 Whincup, P. H. Gilg, J. A. Emberson, J. R. Jarvis, M. J. Feyerabend, C. Bryant, A. Walker, M. Cook, D. G. (2004) Passive smoking and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: prospective study with cotinine measurement British Medical Journal 1 (1) 200-203 Wisborg, K. Kesmodel, U. Henriksen, T. B. Olsen, S. F. Secher, N. J. (2000) A prospective study of smoking during pregnancy and SIDS Archives Of Disease In Childhood 83(1) 203-206 Wiltshire, S. Amos. A and Hawa (2005). Image context and transition: smoking in mid to late adolescence. Journal of Adolescence 28(5) 603-17 Zhu, S. H. Melcer, T. Sun, J. Rosbrook, B. Pierce, J. P. (2000) Smoking cessation with and without assistance American Journal Of Preventive Medicine18 (4) 305-311 ...read more.

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