• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14

Nutritional Immunology

Extracts from this document...


Nutritional Immunology Introduction Our report title is New Science: Nutritional Immunology. This report was written because it is one of the assignments of the AMES. If we have to pass this subject, we have done well in this assignment and give an excellent presentation. Our lecturer Ms Nor Azizah asked all the student to do a research, the topic is related to the Science and the write a long report pass up as an assignment. The purpose of this assignment is let all student practice to write a report, it is very useful for future use. This report we have to follow the format. Before write this report, we have to decide a title of research, after that we have to write an outline and set a questionnaire. Besides analysis the questionnaire, we also have to do the discussion base on the title. After solve all the problem the last method that we have to do is conclusion. We search the information mostly from the internet. Besides that we also find from references book, newspaper and magazine. We have set a questionnaire and distributed to 40 people. We have to do an analysis base on this 40 questionnaire. From this 40 questionnaire, it divided to two groups, one is construct by all Biology Student from College Tunku Abdul Rahman, Chemistry and Biology year 2. Another group is from other course and some is working, but not major in Biology. Numerous of problem we encounter before write this report. We have conflict in the title of the report and change many times. After that, we all decided to do research about Immune System, so our title is New Science: Nutritional Immunology. We have waste many time in finding the information from internet and references book. 2. Finding and Discussion 2.1 Introduction In our earth, the scientist research show that in every 30 seconds will have one being infected by cancer and every 55 seconds will have one person die causes by cancer. ...read more.


2.4 The immune system main functions 2.4.1 The first function: Defense When an invader attempts to enter the body, it must first cross multiple barriers such as our mucus membranes and skin. If the invader enters the body, white blood cells quickly recognize the pathogen as an invader and begin to coordinate the defense system. Soon, other defender cells, such as killer cells, macrophages and phagocytes come to help destroy the invader. White blood cells begin to produce an antibody to defend against any future attacks. The body produces more than one billion different antibodies to combat many types of invaders. These invaders are then attacked and destroyed by natural killer cells. The killer cell binds to its target, aims its weapons and then delivers a lethal burst of chemicals that produces holes in the target cell's membrane. Fluids leak out and the cell bursts. Example of defense and attack cell is White blood cells it can be divided into two groups: B cells, coming from bone marrow, and T cells, which are trained within the thymus to combat foreign invaders. (The T cell is located in the center at the B cells refer to picture 3). The other type of defense cell is Natural Killer cell (NK-cell) (refer to picture 4). Function of NK-cell is help to destroy the cancer cell in our body.2.4.2 The second function: Clearance The immune cells eliminate wastes and impurities including the remains of bacteria and dead cells from our body, through sweat and phlegm. Macrophages, the "garbage men" of the body, have tentacles that grab the destroyed organisms and engulf them. The function of the macrophage is to ingest any foreign particles, including aged body cells. Example of clearance cell is macrophage. That is many type of macrophage (refer to picture 5) this is one type of macrophage, it also call "garbage man of the body". One of the main functions of the macrophage is to ingest any foreign particles, including aged body cells. ...read more.


The factor that causes malfunction of the human immune system is air pollution, water pollution, diet, stress and many. We cannot survive without air. The progress brought about by industrialization and development has caused our air quality to deteriorate. Polluted air has been found to be a major health hazard. The polluted air can causes cough, Pneumonia and other diseases. Water is another important element for survival. Modern farming and industrialization have caused the decline of our water quality. Installing a water filter does not remove all of the pollutants because of difficulty in replacing and cleaning the water filter element regularly. Therefore we are likely to take in polluted water that may cause food poisoning, peptic ulcers and Cholera. Improper diet is one of the greatest health hazards confronting the human race today. We all like to eat delicious food regardless of whether or not it is balanced or nutritious. Even if we eat a balanced diet, we may not be healthy because of the chemical fertilizes and pesticides employed in modern farming that can cause food poising and cancer. Stress has been described as a silent killer. Stress created by work, relationships, news report, and other factors can affect our mood and adversely affect our health. Conclusion By now it should be quite clear that it's not an easy task to build and strength our immune functions. The saying "you are what you eat" holds a lot of truth. By being vigilant about our daily diet and lifestyle choices, we can prevent a host of incurable illness. Popping vitamin pills do not give you the same benefit as eating nutritious foods. Recent reports have proved that low immunity occurs because of poor nutrition and not as an invertible part of old age. Proper nourishment along with exercise and healthy habit are undeniably linked to a strong immune system. Imbalanced diets, unhealthy living habits and insufficient health knowledge are all cause for a suppressed immune function. However, if our immune system is functioning properly, we can defend ourselves from most illness and strengthening the immune system. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Healthcare section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Healthcare essays

  1. Nutrition case study. Overall, I think Emma should have a well balanced diet. Her ...

    Fish are one of the most important sources of calcium. The soft bones of small fish such as sardines and smelts and canned varieties such as salmon are especially valuable sources of calcium. Eating fish will help Emma to keep strong and healthy bones.

  2. Health and Disease

    Discrimination - Discrimination and prejudice results in many vulnerable groups and individuals experiencing barriers to accessing the services and support they need. These barriers can be tracked back to the values, attitudes and beliefs that affect behaviour and the way society is organised.

  1. Strageties for prevention of disease

    Lung cancer is a leading contributor to this number, with the disease taking around 20,000 lives each year. Sixty five percent of cancer diagnoses in the UK will be in people over 65 years of age (Cancer Research UK, 2003).

  2. Immunisation. The human body comes into contact with millions of germs and is also ...

    the exposure of these foreign invaders on the surface of the lymphocytes the lymphocytes become activated. This is when this immunity is activated and because of this the immune system is known as a natural immune system. The immune system response The natural immune system works through a serious of steps which is called the immune response.

  1. Discuss recent research regarding the role of dioxin as a possible causative agent in ...

    of, due to them being highly hydrophobic, therefore highly soluble in fats, and males have no way of expelling dioxins from their bodies except to let the dioxins biodegrade. Dioxins have a half-life of ~12 years in the human body.

  2. Marieanna should try to control her eating habits by eating more sensible, well balanced ...

    The physical measures of health could be affected Marieanna by a range of higher risks is drinking because it will cause her a higher risk of liver damage. She may be also over weight because she is drinking, so this means she will be unable to loser weight.

  1. Ovarian cancer

    occurs in ovarian tumors. However, the significance remains to be determined. It is controversial as to whether overexpression of the HER-2/neu gene in ovarian cancer is associated with poor prognosis. In addition to studying proto-oncogenes in tumors, it may be beneficial to investigate proto-oncogenes in germ-line DNA from members of families with histories of ovarian cancer (Barber, 323-324).

  2. Hypothermia - experiment write up

    Simple models can give us some initial insights into systems which are difficult to study. An example is the process of heat loss through our skin. The structure of the skin is complex, but we can get a feel for the factors influencing the rate of heat loss through it using a simple model.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work