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P2: Explain different psychological approaches to health practice and managing phobias.

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P2: Explain different psychological approaches to health practice: In this assignment I will be explain how two different psychological approaches understand and manage phobias. The phobia I will be using to give examples is the phobia of needles. The Behaviourist Perspective: This perspective can be used to get over a phobia by using Skinner?s theory, Operant conditioning. Operant conditioning can be used when trying to shape someone?s behaviour on something. This is when you are trying to create a new behaviour of something and getting rid of an unhelpful behaviour. Phobia of a needle: If a patient wanted to get rid of their phobia of needles they can do this in two ways, either with positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement. ...read more.


Their next step may be to hold an injection and putting it slowing into a doll to show how the nurses will be doing it safely. If they do this then positive reinforcement will be given. Once they have overcome their fear of needles, they may go for a blood test to see if their behaviour of needles has changed. The Psychodynamic perspective: This perspective can help understand and manage a phobia by using Freud?s theory about the conscious and unconscious mind. The person?s phobia may be in unconscious mind where something may have happened in the past which affects their mind of the object. For example, when a person looks at a needle they may get scared by remembering an incident that had happened in the past with a needle. ...read more.


If the patient reacts to the needle then the therapist will know something may have happened with a needle in the past, so they may ask questions about needles to find out what exactly had happened with the needle; this may lead to the needle being used while taking drugs. After being aware of the phobia, the therapist will let the patient know that they have a fear of needles and will then make the patient overcome that fear by doing activities related to needles. For example, they may get the patient to hold a needle and then do a blood test to check their iron levels to show that needles can be used for medical reasons and not only for drugs. The patient may slowly overcome their phobia by understanding that needles have medical use and may forget what had happened in the past. ...read more.

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