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Psychology - Unit 8 Health and Social Care P1 M1

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Selena Ahmed Unit 8 Christine Behaviourist: The behaviourist perspective is that we can understand any type of behaviour by looking at what a person has learned. This will include personality traits such as; confidence, shyness, optimism or pessimism as well as other fleeting behaviours. Behaviourist psychologists can explain all human behaviour as resulting from experience. They are two associated thinkers with the behaviourist perspective and they are Pavlov (classical conditioning) and Skinner (operant conditioning). Both the theorists explained all the types of behaviour as being a result of learning everything i.e. from shyness to aggression, from happiness to depression. Classical conditioning is a theory that was developed by a Russian physiologist called Ivan Pavlov (1849 ? 1936). Pavlov worked with dogs in order to investigate their digestive systems, the dogs were attached to a harness and Pavlov attached monitors to their stomachs and mouths in order for him to measure the production of saliva. Pavlov one day had noticed the dog began to produce saliva when the laboratory assistant had entered the room with a bowl of food before the dog had actually tasted the food. As salivation is an automatic response it seemed quite strange, Pavlov gathered that the dog was producing saliva because it had learned to associate the laboratory assistant with food. Food automatically led to the response of salivation due to salivation being an automatic response which was referred as ?unconditional response?. Unconditioned meant ?not learned?, as food automatically led to this response which he referred as ?unconditional stimulus?. Pavlov then displayed food at the exact same time as ringing a bell to see if the dog would learn to associate the bell with food. ...read more.


For e.g. Between birth and the age of one. The Humanistic Perspective: Humanistic psychology looks at human experience from the viewpoint of the individual. It focuses on the idea of free will and the belief that we are all capable of making choices. They are two psychologists that are associated with this approach they are Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. Abraham Maslow: Maslow (1908 ? 1970) was an American psychologist who believed that we are all seeking to become the best we can possibly be; spiritually, physically emotionally and intellectually. He referred this as self-actualisation which is tendency we all possess as human beings to become the best that we all can be in all aspects of personality. He developed a theory known as the hierarchy of needs which he explained every human being requires certain basic needs to be met before they can progress and approach to the next level. Carl Rogers: Rogers (1902 ? 1987) was particularly interested in the concept of self. There many aspects of self but two are especially important here. Self ? concept refers to how we view ourselves, this includes physical and biological attributes such as being male or female, blonde or brunette, tall or short along with personality traits such as being kind, humble, assertive and hard working. Self- concept is formed at an early stage of life and young children internalise which is when we take in information from the outer world and build it into sense ourselves which then becomes a part of our feelings, thoughts and beliefs about who we are and what we expect from the society around us, other peoples judgments of them. This becomes a part of one?s self concept, for e.g. ...read more.


Also aggressive behaviour could be learnt by a parent if a child sees their parents as their role model and watches them being aggressive this will make them want to copy their parents and become aggressive. Psychodynamic approach & aggressive behaviour: The psychodynamic approach assumes that we may possibly all unconsciously have a desire to destruct ourselves however due to our functioning egos it does not allow us to self destruct therefore due to instincts we would turn this behaviour towards others. Supporters of the psychodynamic approach believe that aggression may be caused by the unconscious death instinct. This approach also believes aggression could be caused by some of our needs not being met such as Erikson?s eight stages of development which are hopes, will, purpose, competence fidelity, love, care and wisdom. The psychodynamic approach believes we may get aggressive if we do not go through all of these stages in the order we should and something crucial may be missing in our lives which could cause a negative pattern that could cause aggressive behaviour. Cognitive & aggressive behaviour: The cognitive approach believes that everybody?s brains are comparable but dissimilar because we all process things in our brains differently to each other. Aggressive behaviour may be due to a person being exposed to violence most of their life which may lead to them to behave differently towards someone who has never been exposed to violence before and this may lead the person to become aggressive. This approach believes that behaviour is based upon experience and genetic make- up so someone may have aggressive behaviour early in life and it may get worse if it is permitted to progress. This approach could possibly be criticised by being abstract and not too realistic. Selena Ahmed Unit 8 Christine ...read more.

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