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Sociology and Health. Within this assignment I will use a range of sociological terminology in order to describe each of the following sociological perspectives; functionalism, Marxism, feminism, interactionism, collectivism, postmodernism and the new rig

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Introduction

Task 1 Criteria - P1, P2 P1 Within this assignment I will use a range of sociological terminology in order to describe each of the following sociological perspectives; functionalism, Marxism, feminism, interactionism, collectivism, postmodernism and the new right. Throughout this assignment I will refer to culture, values, beliefs, norms, socialisation, social status, social roles and social class. "A society is made up of key institutions or building blocks, including the family, the education system, work and the economic systems, the political system, religious groups and the mass media. Sociologists are concerned with the way these institutions relate to each other and influence our behaviour." Quote taken from; Sociological perspectives PowerPoint Sociologists look closely at the ways in which the different groups within a particular society influence individual behaviour. Society can be defined as; a group of individuals living in one area that pursue different attitudes and beliefs about different things. Sociologists believe that an individual's behaviour is learnt merely through the process of socialisation. There are two types of socialisation; primary and secondary which I am going to look at in more detail within this assignment. Socialisation is defined as; "The process of learning the usual ways of behaving in society." Stretch. Beryl. (2007). BTEC National Health and social care book 1.page 336 I am now going to look in detail at the key sociological perspectives. I will use sociological terminology in order to do this effectively. The perspectives which I am going to discuss are; * Functionalism * Marxism * Feminism * Interactionism * Collectivism * Postmodernism * The New Right Each of the above sociological perspectives has been used in order to describe and understand societies and the individual's behaviours within that particular society. Functionalism The first sociological perspective in which I am going to describe is functionalism, which is known as a structuralist theory; it is sometimes also referred to as the Consensus model. ...read more.

Middle

Improvements around equal opportunities within society will continue as legislations are amended and implemented, for example, men are now entitled to paternity leave like women are entitled to maternity leave when having a child. Interactionism Interactionism is another sociological perspective, but it contrasts completely with the structuralist perspectives which I have discussed previously in this assignment as it focuses on small groups like teenage gangs, travellers etc as oppose to larger groups like what the structuralists focused on to observe how they influence individual behaviour and shape society. They believe that every one is different in their own way and that all individuals will act differently if they are ever put in the same situation. An example of this could be two individuals could visit the doctors with the same symptoms of an illness. One doctor could provide the patient with a sick note explaining that they are too ill to work; whereas the other doctor may say they are fine to work. Every individual interprets things differently and it is these interpretations which shape our behaviour and in effect our society. Interactionists do not believe that people are totally programmed by the process of socialisation, whereas structuralists do believe strongly that this is most influential. They do believe that we are influenced by socialisation in some way but they believe we have the freewill to choose how we want to behave. There are two different types of socialisation; primary and secondary. Primary socialisation is the early years of our lives which is spent at home with our family, and secondary socialisation carries on throughout our lives through; school, friendship or peers and also through the media and our employment. Interactionists concentrate more on smaller groups in society as oppose to larger social institutions like the economic system. They do not have much of an interest in social structure compared to the other perspectives which I have discussed. ...read more.

Conclusion

Stretch. Beryl. (2007). BTEC National Health and social care book 1.page 352 This has proven that defining health can be very difficult because people have different opinions on what they think is actually meant by been healthy. Studies which are carried out to record levels of health within and between societies focuses on issues of ill-health. For instance, sociologists use information about death rates, visits to GP's, suicide statistics and incidence of notifiable diseases in order to analyse the ill-health within each society. All of these are analysed by social class, occupation, ethnicity, gender, age and geographical location. "It is much easier to measure the negative indicators of health compared with the positive indicators as there is much more information available and it can be measured statistically." Taken from PowerPoint The World health Organisation The World Health Organisation supports the positive concept of health, because I have already discussed it defines health as; "not merely an absence of disease, but a state of complete physical, mental, spiritual and social well-being." Stretch. Beryl. (2007). BTEC National Health and social care book 1.page 352 The WHO is the directing authority for health within the United Nations system. "It is responsible for providing leadership on global health matters, shaping the health research agenda, setting norms and standards, articulating evidence-based policy options, providing technical support to countries and monitoring and assessing health trends." http://www.who.int/about/en/ Conclusion In this assignment I have looked at the different concepts of health which I have briefly described. The concepts in which I described were; the positive concept, the negative concept, the holistic concept and the definition of the World Health Organisation. In my opinion when a patient is receiving treatment they should be assessed holistically as I believe that the diagnosis would be much more accurate and also it is not just specific issues that health professionals look for they take everything into consideration. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 Laura Wingfield Group C Sociology P1,P2 ...read more.

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