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Teaching in Clinical Practice

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Health Promotion & Education - Module 2/01C & Teaching in Clinical Practice Module 2/08 A Level 2 Combined Summative Assessment. Submitted to : University of Surrey? European Institute of Health & Medical Sciences School of Education & Professional Training. Course Convenors : Chris Willott Janet Trigg Word Count : 2695 INDEX. Page Number. INTRODUCTION. 1 SEXUAL HEALTH. 3 HEALTH EDUCATION AND PROMOTION : NEEDS, AIMS, GOALS AND OBJECTIVES. 5 HEALTH EDUCATION AND PROMOTION : BEHAVIOUR CHANGE AND EDUCATIONAL APPROACHES. 7 HEALTH EDUCATION AND PROMOTION : EDUCATIONAL TEACHING MODELS. 9 CONCLUSION. 12 REFERENCES. 13 BIBLIOGRAPHY. 15 ANNEX A : FREQUENCY OF KC 60 DIAGNOSES SOUTH THAMES (WEST) GUM CLINICS, 1995 - 1997. i INTRODUCTION. The author intends to critically analyse a need for safer sex health education, and will demonstrate a teaching strategy to meet this need for the clients attending a Department of Genito-Urinary Medicine (GUM) at a large suburban NHS trust hospital. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STI's) are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in the United Kingdom (UK), and the incidence appears to be on the increase (Annex A: PHLS CDSC, 1997; DOH, 1996). Therefore the Conservative Government attempted to address this problem with the advent of the "Health of the Nation" document in 1992. This document sets out defined areas for health promotion, included in these are areas relating to sexual health. More recently the present Labour Government set out its document relating to health promotion and education, entitled "Our Healthier Nation" (1998). However, the main criticism levelled at this Green Paper was, it failed to recognise sexual health as an actual or potential problem (HPS, 1998). The promotion of sexual health is a legitimate role for health professionals and is an essential nursing function (Ingram-Fogel, 1990). With direct client contact, nurses are ideally placed to carry out this vital educational role (Winship and Peachey, 1995), but there is more to this than just giving out leaflets with information about HIV and STI's. ...read more.

Middle

This can be achieved through a basic verbal question and answer scenario. This encourages the thought processes of the client and identifies key factors inherent to the problem of unsafe sexual practices (Walkin, 1990). The client states that the main reasons behind his present attitude towards condoms, and their use is that he feels that they are contraceptives rather than a barrier to infection. This opinion is common among heterosexual adults in this country, and is frequently quoted by clients attending a GUM clinic for the first time (Sutton and Payne, 1997). Once the current level of knowledge is assessed then new information can be added into the discussion. This enables the client to make an informed choice about their sexual health behaviour, at the same time it allows them the opportunity to share and explore their own attitudes and beliefs (Naidoo and Wills, 1994). Bloom's (1956) three levels of mental performance i.e. analysis, synthesis and evaluation, can be grouped together into one known as "invention" (Walkin, 1990 : Naidoo and Wills, 1994). The client can demonstrate this process by breaking the information down into parts and indicating a clear understanding of the material given (Walkin, 1990). As part of the learning process it is important to introduce condoms and their application to the client, this can be a chance for a "hands on" demonstration by the health promoter. This can then be used as a form of evaluation, by getting the client to repeat the process in front of the health promoter. It is important that during the discussion and demonstration process that the health promoter does not dwell on the negativity of disease and infection as this negative reinforcement can have the opposite effect when discussing issues surrounding sexual health (Miller and Bor, 1991). In that the client may decide that this situation may have nothing to do with them, and therefore "switch off" and ignore any new information given to them. ...read more.

Conclusion

Chancriod, Donovanosis, LGV 1 1 0.0 0 C5 Complicated non gonoccocal & non specific infection 390 70 2.9 320 C6a Trichomoniasis 141 5 0.0 136 C6b Anaerobic / Bacterial vaginosis & male infection 1231 55 0.0 1176 C6c Other vaginosis / vaginitis / balanitis 864 426 3.3 438 C7a Anogenital Candidiasis 2203 307 3.6 1896 C7b Epidemiological treatment of C6 & C7 186 111 0.0 75 C8, C9 Scabies / Pediculosis Pubis 136 109 15.7 27 C10a Anogenital herpes simplex - first attack 407 157 3.2 250 C10b Anogenital herpes simplex - recurrence 356 161 6.9 195 C11a Anogentital wart virus infection - first attack 1212 587 3.9 625 C11b Anogentital wart virus infection - recurrence 734 458 4.8 275 C11c Anogentital wart virus infection persisting >3 months 428 254 4.8 174 C12 Mooluscum Contagiosum 120 83 9.6 37 C13 Antigen positive viral hepatitis B 55 46 30.4 9 C14 Other viral hepatitis 22 16 12.5 6 D2a Urinary tract infection 326 55 7.4 271 D2b Other conditions requiring treatment 1999 840 10.7 1159 D3 Other episodes not requiring treatment 3469 1556 4.5 1913 P1a Counselling & HIV antibody test done 3026 1551 13.8 1475 P1b Counselling & HIV antibody test not done 385 214 14.4 171 P2 Immunisation against hepatitis B 284 240 64.7 44 P3 Family planning 272 11 0.0 261 P4a Cervical cytology - minor abnormality 421 1 0.0 420 P4b Cervical cytology - major abnormality 48 0 0.0 48 P4e Cervical cytology - other diagnosis 158 0 0.0 158 E1a Asymptomatic HIV infections - first presentation 49 30 62.1 19 E1b Asymptomatic HIV infection - subsequent presentation 108 69 81.8 39 E2a HIV infection with symptoms, not AIDS - first presentation 37 30 73.3 7 E2b HIV infection with symptoms, not AIDS - subsequent presentation 101 77 76.6 24 E3a AIDS - first presentation 21 17 64.7 4 E3b AIDS - subsequent presentation 84 67 71.6 17 E4 AIDS - death 9 7 85.7 2 Total 22516 9819 10.5 12696 ...read more.

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