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The basics of UV sun rays

Extracts from this essay...

Introduction

Cancer in general Cancer is a non-communicable (non-infectious) disease, in other words it is not caused by pathogens. Cancer is caused when abnormal cells in the body divide by mitosis in an uncontrolled way by using the enzyme telomerase; this gives rise to tumours and, if the cells are malignant, cancers. Cancer is a major cause of death in the developed world. In 1999 7.3 million people worldwide died from cancers. In high income European countries cancer is known as the second biggest killer. There are over 200 different cancers. The most common cancers are lung cancer and skin cancer. There are about 42.2 new cases of lung cancer reported in the UK per 1000 people each year and 5 new cases of skin cancer reported per 1000 people in the UK each year - and many cases go unreported. It is difficult to treat cancer because there are many different cancers. There are some common characteristics between them though; one being the presence of unregulated cell growth leading to the development of tumours. Not all tumours are cancerous - the greatest numbers are benign. Benign tumours are characterised by entirely localised growth and are usually separated from surrounding tissue by a surrounding capsule. Benign tumours generally grow slowly and closely resemble the structure of the tissue they originate from. At worst benign tumours may press on blood vessels or nerves, interfering with their normal function. Cells from malignant tumours, however, invade other tissues, causing considerable damage; they metastasise - break off and spread to other parts of the body via the blood or lymph system and form secondary growths in other organs. A cancer becomes harder to treat the more spread over your body it is. Drugs can be given to reduce the rate of division of the cancer cells and radiation treatment can be used to kill the cells. Research is continuing into several other methods of treating cancer.

Middle

Sunglasses Sunglasses protect eyes against UV radiation and decrease the amount of bright light that enters the eye. Not using sunglasses can lead to snow-blindness, a temporary but painful condition that results in inflammation to the eyes, due to UV ray exposure. Symptoms include: * Light sensitivity * Feeling grit in the eyes * Reddening of the eyelids Excessive exposure of the eyes to UV rays can lead to cancers of the eyelids. UVB rays are a major factor in age-related cataracts. When buying sunglasses you should consider: * UV filtering - you should buy sunglasses that block at least 95% of UV rays. * Lens colour - you should select a tint based on what activities you will be doing. Some tints work better for some activities and weather conditions than others. Consult a salesperson for which tints are best in which situations. For general use you should choose a tint that blocks 80% of transmissible light. They must not block more than 90-92% of transmissible light or the sunglasses might significantly affect your ability to see! Dark sunglasses that do not have adequate UV filtering can cause the pupils to dilate (open), which allow more instead of less UV radiation to pass into the eye. Polarisation (which effectively reduces 'glare') is also another factor to consider when buying sunglasses. * Comfort * Price - Buy your sunglasses from a reputable store. If you find a pair of sunglasses which are normally very expensive at a phenomenally low price then you can feel confident that they are most likely a counterfeit, look-alikes, or stolen! In which case they probably will not provide the same protection. Less expensive sunglasses do not mean less protection. The sunglasses whether glass or plastic, must also be impact resistant. All sunglasses must meet FDA requirements for impact resistance. Self-examination What to look for: Look for a new growth or any skin change.

Conclusion

* To change public attitudes towards tanning and sun exposure. * To encourage detection of skin cancers at the earliest stage when they are almost always curable. * To improve skin cancer care by offering physician education and training programs. * To support research into new diagnostic techniques and therapies. * To focus attention on melanoma, the most life threatening of the skin cancers. * To teach children and their caregivers about the sun * To encourage community action * To stimulate public education programs abroad. The Skin Cancer Foundation achieves its aims through nationwide public and professional education programs. The Macmillan Butterfly Centre The centre offers information, support, and practical help to any person affected by cancer, whether patient, family member, carer or friend. The centre aims: * To provide a comfortable setting for individuals to discuss their needs with staff, in a friendly relaxed atmosphere. * To provide a full range of relevant information on cancer and to make specialist referrals where needed. * To raise awareness about cancer and listen to the views and concerns of those affected. The centre offers a relaxed and friendly atmosphere with quite areas for reading. There are also areas for outpatients and chemotherapy treatment. As the service develops they plan to offer counselling and complementary therapies. There are opportunities to join various support groups and talk to other people with cancer. An experienced professional team, supported by trained volunteers, staffs the centre. The centre has a comprehensive library with leaflets, books, tapes, as well as access to the Internet so you can look up information at your own pace. The Macmillan Butterfly Centre has been developed as a joint venture between Macmillan Cancer Relief and Epsom and St.Helier NHS Trust. The centre is open between 10am-12pm Monday to Friday if you would like to drop in for a coffee and a chat (no need to make an appointment). The centre is set out to help people with cancer, people who know people with cancer and people who have a fear of cancer. 2 Vicky Goddin - X09 1

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