The Costs of Cigarette Smoking.

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Introduction

THE COSTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKING. BY SUKAINA BANDALI. Cigarette smoking causes a variety of life threatening diseases, including lung cancer, emphysema, and heart disease. In the UK about 120,000 people die each year due to smoking. A half of all smokers die from smoking related diseases.0 There are many ingredients in tobacco smoke which are harmful to our health in different ways.1 Some of the ingredients are tar, carbon monoxide, nicotine and other chemicals and additives such as ammonia, arsenic (a poison used in insecticides and weed killers), benzene, hydrogen cyanide and many other.2 Tar deposits on the lungs can cause lung diseases. Carbon monoxide and other chemicals reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood and plays a significant role in the development of smoking-related heart disease and damaged various parts of the body such as blood vessels.3* Nicotine causes blood vessels to constrict, raises blood pressure, increases heart rate and increases the hearts demand for oxygen and it stimulates then nervous system.4 This is the ingredient that leads people to become addicted to smoking.5 Smoking has harmful effects on all parts of our body.

Middle

Severe emphysema causes breathlessness which is made worse by infections. It is estimated that smoking is associated with 75% of deaths from emphysema.13 The chemicals in tobacco can damage the lining of the blood vessels.14 This helps in the build up of fatty material along the inner lining o the arteries, this is known as Atheroma (sometimes called 'hardening' or 'furring' of the arteries).15 Atheroma is the main cause of heart disease, it is also a cause stroke due to damage to the brain arteries.16 Atheroma in the blood vessels of the penis causes impotence in man.17 Smoking also increases the blood pressure and it decreases the amount of oxygen carried by the red blood cells.18 Carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke combines with the haemoglobin to form carboxyhaemoglobin which is a non reversible reaction and this reduces they oxygen carrying capacity of the red blood cells. Heart burn happens when acidic juices from the stomach splash into the oesophagus.19 Normally a muscular valve at the lower end of the oesophagus, the lower oesophageal sphincter keeps the acid solution in the stomach and out

Conclusion

This mean that smokers tend to be unemployed hence they have to survive on social benefit. The government imposes high tax on cigarette to discourage people from smoking; the tax obtained is then used in other things like funding the NHS (National Health Service), unemployment benefits and many more. Smoking causes a number of health complications not only to the smoker but also to the passive smokers this means that the government ends up paying more to the national health service than what it obtains from tax. I personally feel that smoking should be band in public places and tobacco should be treated as a drug because it's addictive and has a lot of harmful effects on the human body. Smokers spend a lot of money buying cigarettes which is expensive. It will also help improve the government's budget; the government will have to spend less on social benefit. The money used to operate the smoking quit lines could be used more efficiently elsewhere.

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Related AS and A Level Healthcare

  1. External influences of Cigarette smoking and diseases caused by Cigarette smoking

    Emphysema is a lung disease in which the ability of the lungs to expel air is reduced due to damage to the bronchioles. Cigarette smoke causes alveoli to produce defensive cells, called macrophages, which "eat" the inhaled particles. But macrophages release elastin and collagen when they are stimulated.

  2. The costs of cigarette smoking on human health

    lot of pressure on the heart as the heart has to push blood quicker around the body), emphysema (a illness which occurs by the walls of the alveoli becoming damaged and resulting into a leak of tissue fluid)3 and arteriosclerosis (a illness which occurs over a period of many years

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