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The Types, Possible Reasons For, & Effects of Abuse

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐Assignment 1: The types, possible reasons for, the effects of abuse ________________ Contents Types of Abuse Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Neglect Financial/Material Abuse Psychological/Emotional Abuse Discriminatory Abuse Institutional Abuse Exploitation Indicators of Abuse Unexplained Injuries Poor Hygiene Behaviour Changes Financial Difficulties Factors That May Lead to Abuse Adults Most at Risk Environment Situations People Who Might Abuse Effects of two types of abuse Long-Term Effects of Abuse Bibliography Introduction Abuse is the violation of an individual?s human and civil rights by any other person or persons?. Abuse can be a single act, repeated acts, psychological, physical, verbal, inability to consent, no consent in transactions, and can occur in relationships. The outcome of abuse can lead to significant harm; physical or psychological, exploitation and/or denial of rights. Types of Abuse Physical Abuse Physical abuse is non-accidental harm to the body caused by the use of force or violence that results in pain, injury or a change in the person?s physical estate. It includes assault, battery, and inappropriate restraint. Physical abuse may be carried out by care workers who lose their temper with a service user because they are being difficult or in retaliation. Examples of physical abuse include: 1. Punching ? bruising to parts of the body. 2. Hitting ? bruising, outlines of objects on skin. 3. Restraining ? signs of pinching. 4. Slapping ? hand prints on parts of the body. 5. Shaking ? signs of hand grip marks to upper arms. Sexual Abuse Sexual abuse is any kind of sexual activities or relationships directed towards a vulnerable adult without the person?s full knowledge and which they haven?t consented to and cannot consent to, or they can?t understand, or they are not able to consent to. Sexual abuse includes sexual assault, sexual harassment, and rape. Sexual abuse can happen to mentally capable adults by their spouse, partner, a family member or trusted people in their lives. ...read more.

Middle

Poor personal hygiene, particularly if someone is unable to care for themselves and relies on others for help, can indicate someone is suffering from depression. Indicators of poor hygiene include rashes on the skin, flaky skin where the skin is dry, acne: occurs when there is a build up of bacteria and uneven texture to the skin. Behaviour Changes Behaviour changes are a result of emotional or psychological abuse because psychological abuse has an effect on a vulnerable adult?s emotional welfare and development. Changes in behaviour that appear to be out of character for a person should be investigated by care workers. Examples of changes in behaviour include, low self-esteem, sudden lack of motivation, mood swings and attention seeking behaviour. Indicators of changes in behaviour include differences to the way a person acts. For example, talking about suicide and having suicidal thoughts can reveal feelings of helplessness. Financial Difficulties Financial difficulties are a result of financial or material abuse because this is where a person?s money or possessions have been stolen from them. Other indicators of abuse include unexplained withdrawals from bank accounts without any clear benefit to a person. This can lead to low amounts of food in an individual?s house and not wanting to turn the heating on even when it?s cold. Occasionally it can be difficult to decide whether money was given or taken by a family member. Indicators of financial difficulties include a service user is unable to buy essential necessities such as food and drink. Another indicator is that a service user may be reluctant to use their heating, even when it is cold because they have been financially abused. Factors That May Lead to Abuse There are many factors that may lead to abuse. These include, people who are at greatest risk of being abused, and environments they are likely to be in, situations in which abuse may occur and the people who might abuse. ...read more.

Conclusion

Social effects also include, victims can have a fear of being alone and become defensive where they are suspicious of what other people are doing. Abuse can also have an effect on their faith, employment, and sexuality. For example, a victim of abuse may not want to go to work because they are afraid of what other people may think or they are over-sensitive to power struggles or frequent job changes due to avoidance of conflict. (Long-Term Effects, 2012, pp. 10,11) Psychological effects of victims of abuse include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The effects of PTSD include frequent nightmares, flashbacks: acting or feeling like the event is happening again, feelings of intense distress when reminded of the trauma, avoiding activities, places, thoughts or feelings that remind victims of the abuse, feeling separated from others, difficulty concentrating and feeling jumpy and easily surprised (PTSD, 2012). Other psychological effects include increased sensitivity to touch: over-reaction to physical touch of any kind, even from trusted friends. Memory problems: inability to concentrate and memory blockages. Depression: feelings of hopelessness and thoughts of suicide. Long-term physical effects of victims of abuse include, disability resulting from abuse. These disabilities can be physical and/or psychological. Physical disabilities resulting from abuse include deafness resulting from the abuser constantly shouting in a victim?s ear. Psychological effects include depression to the point of being disabling. Other physical effects include, infertility caused by sexual abuse, intentional obesity: someone may consider layers of to be layers of protection. Addictive behaviours including alcohol and other drugs, food, smoking as a way of coping with behaviour is also a physical effect. From looking at the longer-term effects of abuse we can see that the long-term effects of abuse have an on-going impact on the quality of life and daily working of abuse victims. Abuse effects everyone differently, one person who has been abused, can go on to be an abuser, whereas others can focus on knowing what is right from wrong and doing what they can to change their lives. ...read more.

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