• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Tourette's Syndrome: A critical review

Extracts from this document...


Tourette's Syndrome: A critical review Introduction Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome (TS) is a sporadic or inherited complex neuropsychiatric disorder (not an illness) influenced by neurological, psychological, and sociological factors. It is characterized by involuntary tics - sudden, rapid, recurrent nonrhythmic movements or noises that occur repeatedly in the same way (Temple, 2003). The symptoms include: both multiple motor tics and one or more phonic tics (which may or may not include vocalizations and which sometimes include outbursts of swearing) present at some time during the disorder although not necessarily simultaneously; tics occur many times a day (usually in bouts) nearly every day or intermittently throughout a span of more than one year. Periodic changes are expected in the number, frequency, type and location of the tics; waxing and waning of their severity is also common. Symptoms can sometimes disappear for weeks or months at a time. TS affects about 1 in every 2000 people (Robertson, 1989). TS syndrome is not considered a mystery anymore, among the circles of neuroscience and clinical psychology, as it has been in the past. On the other hand, there are still some controversial issues regarding this disorder. These are the ways in which Tourette's should be treated (what medications should be prescribed to people with TS) and the matter whether Tourette's should be actually considered a Higher Executive Function deficit or not. There is also the issue of the inheritability of the disorder. ...read more.


Despite the fact that it has not been proven that psychotherapy on its own can totally eliminate tics, it is accepted that it can be beneficial to some TS patients who require treatment of the psychological consequences of this difficult disorder. The inability to control one's own body and even one's own thoughts, which is taken for granted by most people, often is a great source of anxiety, guilt, fear, helplessness, anger, and depression. Some patients react by withdrawal, others by aggression, and still others by perfectionism and excessive efforts to be in control (Cooper, Robertson & Livingston, 2003). Since virtually all TS patients are subjected to some form of negative social reactions, self-esteem problems are common. In addition, the person with TS experiences all the difficulties associated with growing up with a chronic illness. For those reasons rather than for the primary symptoms of TS, psychodynamic or supportive psychotherapeutic treatment may well be indicated (Wilhelm et al., 2002). TS, OCD, ADHD and their comorbidity. Can this suggest that TS is a Higher Executive deficit? TS is often accompanied by features associated with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), poor impulse control, and other behavioural problems. However, the relationships between both ADHD and TS and OCD and TS are complex and not yet clear. Evidence is accumulating that an association exists between OCD and TS. Coffey et al. ...read more.


Can a fine balance be adjusted between the benefits and side effects of each medication so as the patients will not have to confront with major problems caused not by the deficit but by the treatment itself? The complexity of this syndrome and also its comorbidity with other deficits has shown that there is still a lot that needs to be done in this area. Moreover, can psychotherapy and methods such us behaviour therapy and biofeedback be considered an answer to TS treatment. As it has been shown up to now, no matter how beneficial all these methods can be in the treatment of TS, they are still not the answer. Especially on severe TS cases, psychotherapy has proved to be helpless. Is TS a Higher Executive dysfunction after all or not? A lot of researches suggest that TS should be treated as a Higher Executive abnormality since children with this syndrome show poor performance on tasks concerning the SAS functions. Still, a lot of scientists argue that this is not the case, mainly because of the high comorbidity of TS and other Higher Executive dysfunctions such as OCD and ADHD. Finally there is the issue of TS inheritability. Most scientists agree on the fact that genes play an important role at the development of the disorder to a person. However, a lot more research is needed in order to specify the gene(s) which are responsible for TS. What is more, recent studies have not managed to limit down the number of candidate genes, but have actually managed instead to increase it. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Healthcare section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Healthcare essays

  1. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Family Interventions for Psychosis.

    Adams 2000; Dixon et al 200; Gould et al 2000; Bustillo et al 2001; Pitschel et al 2001; Rector & Beck 2002). All of the above papers vary in the methodology and focus. Only Gould et al (2001) and Cormac et al (2002)

  2. Physiological disorder

    at the same time and the both ventricles contract a the same time. The heart works as two pumps one on the right and one on the left. The blood flows from the right atrium to the right ventricles and this has been pumped to the lungs to receive oxygen.

  1. Free essay

    Turner syndrome. One disease that is related to the reproductive system is a condition ...

    For example, an egg or sperm cell may lose a sex chromosome as a result of nondisjunction. If one of these atypical reproductive cells contributes to the genetic makeup of a child, the child will have a single X chromosome in each cell and will be missing the other sex chromosome.

  2. human inheritance

    Temperature: temperature affects reproduction in humans especially in men. The scrotum where sperm are produced is 2 degrees lower than core body temperature. Raising the temperature by a few degrees results in a decline in sperm count and motility. Men suffering from cryoptorchidism, where the testicles are located above the scrotum, closer to central body temperatures, frequently suffer from low sperm counts.

  1. Physiological Disorders

    Role of person supporting the care process (P4) In the hospital care of patient will carry doctors. The doctor will do blood test, urine test and mammography in order to see what is wrong with the patient. A radiographer will make couple of x-rays and scans to see where cancer is located.

  2. mechanisms of fatigue

    The alactacid oxygen debt ranges between 2 to 3.5 litres of oxygen. The fitter you are, the greater the debt because training increases the PC content within the muscle cells. However, the recovery time of a fitter person is reduced because they have enhanced methods of oxygen delivery such as

  1. Abnormal Psychology - Bipolar Disorder

    Half of our genes are inherited from our mothers and half from our fathers. When looking at genes in the context of Bipolar Disorder, genes may confer predisposition to certain symptoms rather than the Disorder itself. For example, with Bipolar Disorder they look at susceptibility to mania or depression rather than mood Disorders as a whole.

  2. Purposes and Methods of Research

    Another example could be that obesity levels have raised out of the whole population in the UK. For this the government has opened new schemes for having a healthy diet like 5 A DAY and Healthy Schools. Knowing that many people watch Jamie Oliver?s cooking shows, he has started his

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work