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Unit 5 Anatomy and physiology in health and social care

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0Unit 5: Anatomy and Physiology for Health and Social Care. Aim and purpose This unit aims to enable learners to understand aspects of the anatomy and physiology of human body systems. Learners will be able to gain an overview of the organisation of the human body before looking at how body systems work together to provide energy for the body. Learners will have the opportunity to investigate how homeostatic mechanisms operate in the body. Unit introduction This unit introduces core knowledge of cellular structure and function, and the organisation of the body as a whole, and then builds on this to develop a more detailed knowledge of the fine anatomy and physiology of the systems involved in energy metabolism. Learners will examine the homeostatic mechanisms involved in regulating these systems to maintain health. Learners will be given the opportunity to undertake practical activities which will require them to take measurements of the cardio-vascular system, the respiratory system and of body temperature, using noninvasive techniques to investigate normal responses to routine variations in body functioning. This unit provides the core understanding of human physiology that underpins the study of the specialist physiology units within this programme. The unit also provides an overview of body functioning that is valuable for anyone working or intending to work in a field relating to health and social care. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1. Know the organisation of the human body 1. Understand the functioning of the body systems associated with energy metabolism 1. Understand how homeostatic mechanisms operate in the maintenance of an internal environment. 1. Be able to interpret data obtained from monitoring routine activities with reference to the functioning of healthy body systems. P1- Describe the functions of the main cells components Cells are the basic units if organisms in which all living things are made. The appearance of the cells depends of the area it is located at and the functions within the organism. ...read more.


Most food leaves the stomach by four hours after eating. Small Intestine Most digestion and absorption of food occurs in the small intestine. The small intestine is a narrow, twisting tube that occupies most of the lower abdomen between the stomach and the beginning of the large intestine. It extends about 20 feet in length. The small intestine consists of three parts: the duodenum (the C-shaped part), the jejunum (the coiled midsection), and the ileum (the last section). The small intestine has two important functions. 1. The digestive process is completed here by enzymes and other substances made by intestinal cells, the pancreas, and the liver. Glands in the intestine walls secrete enzymes that breakdown starches and sugars. The pancreas secretes enzymes into the small intestine that help breakdown carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The liver produces bile, which is stored in the gallbladder. Bile helps to make fat molecules (which otherwise are not soluble in water) soluble, so they can be absorbed by the body. 2. The small intestine absorbs the nutrients from the digestive process. The inner wall of the small intestine is covered by millions of tiny finger like projections called villi. The villi are covered with even tinier projections called microvilli. The combination of villi and microvilli increase the surface area of the small intestine greatly, allowing absorption of nutrients to occur. Undigested material travels next to the large intestine. Large Intestine The large intestine forms an upside down U over the coiled small intestine. It begins at the lower right-hand side of the body and ends on the lower left-hand side. The large intestine is about 5-6 feet long. It has three parts: the cecum, the colon, and the rectum. The cecum is a pouch at the beginning of the large intestine. This area allows food to pass from the small intestine to the large intestine. The colon is where fluids and salts are absorbed and extends from the cecum to the rectum. ...read more.


Some of the measurements were inaccurate because of resting before taking each measurement which will cause the results to be inaccurate, when you are exercising and you want to take the measurements you need a partner to help you measure you breathing, heart, and temperature rate straight away after exercising so the results would be accurate. The equipment that I used in the experiment was accurate but when I did my measurements some of them were inaccurate because I didn?t measure it straight away. Aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration take place. During aerobic respiration breathing rate increases to bring more oxygen into the body, maintaining homeostasis as the cell are adequately supplied with oxygen. Also there is increased perspiration to cool the body and maintain the body temperature as the heightened metabolic state (due to the exercise) produces heat. During anaerobic respiration in the muscles particularly, lactic acid builds up. This creates and oxygen debt, homeostasis hope to compensate for this debt and there by remove lactic acid from the body (as it is toxic), thus breathing rate is also increased. E.g. (the heart rate increases when exercising so the homeostasis controls the blood to pump around the body so you wouldn?t have heart failure.) During exercise, my skeletal muscles metabolize faster hence they require more oxygen and nutrients than when they are in the resting phase. As a result of this, the heart pumps blood faster and harder to compensate for this demand. Since the heart works double time to supply blood, the lungs also take in more oxygen and your breathing rate gets high so you tend to hyperventilate also because of that my energy and fluid stores also gets depleted especially during intense workout so you tend to feel hungry and thirsty after. Conclusion: in summary my findings was that the homeostasis control our breathing rate, heart rate and our temperature so we could do exercise easily and if we didn?t have it we would die, so that explains how much important the homeostasis is. Sources: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_homeostatic_responses_to_changes_in_the_internal_environment_during_exercise ...read more.

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