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Unit 8: Psychological Perspectives for Health and Social Care - P2, P3, M2 and D1

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´╗┐Unit 8: Assignment 2 P2 and P3 1. Behaviourist approach The behaviourist approach can be very useful in health and social care, as this approach explains clearly about learned behaviours. Through this approach health professionals could look at and identify particular behaviour using the concept of associating (classical conditioning) or reinforcement or punishment (operant conditioning). In health and social care, systematic desensitization is used as a health aversion therapy for service users who are finding everyday aspect of their life impossible to cope with. For example a service user who has a phobia of going out may isolate and feel depressed and may not leave their house at all. In this case, health professionals could apply principles of classical conditioning in everyday life in a practical way. The most common method to change behaviour of phobia is by using the systematic desensitization. This method first involves creating a ?hierarchy of fear?, a health professional may come up with list of aspects that is associated with fear the service user has. This classical conditioning procedure is there to help to achieve a state of relaxation for the service user. This is to help to replace the fear and anxiety of state to calm and relaxation. They could do this by showing least feared situation or object to the service user and they are encouraged to relax after they feel alright and not fear it anymore, the health professional will move on to the next level. This procedure is repeated over a period of time until the service user could face the final most feared object and situation without any worry and anxiety. The principle of classical conditioning also used as a treatment for service users who are struggling with alcoholism. The way it is done is that service user will be given a drug which, when it is mixed with alcohol, it will lead them to have really unpleasant physiological effect such as vomiting and nausea. ...read more.


(M, 2010, p. 357) Another humanistic approach in health and social care that is important is active listening. Active listening is different to just listening to someone while they talk and start talking afterwards what they have to say. In active listening, councillors for example they have to pay attention to the body language of the service user as well as try to interpret what they are trying to say and check their understanding. (M, 2010, p. 359) In health and social care, health professionals must try to respect all service users regardless of their difference in gender, social class, ethnicity, religious belief, language and culture. It is important that they try to approach service users with non judgemental manner as otherwise it could become a barrier in helping them. (M, 2010, p. 359) Other health professionals such as health worker and social workers need these skills that are described above when dealing with service users. 1. Cognitive approach This approach in relation to health and social care is to help and support service users who have leaning difficulties and emotional difficulties. Service users with learning disabilities such as dyspraxia, dyslexia and ADHD may experience huge frustration with their daily lives. Supporting individuals with emotional difficulties e.g. depression and post traumatic stress disorder ? CBT Cognitive Behavioural Therapy In health and social care health professionals would encounter many service users who are suffering from depression. In order to support service users who are suffering from depression, they could take Cognitive behavioural therapy also known as CBT. CBT helps service users to challenge their negative thoughts that they have about themselves to positive. Post traumatic stress disorder is about when someone experienced traumatic that is posed threat to their life or others. Symptoms of post traumatic disorders are anxiety, depression, phobias and substance misuse such as cocaine, alcohol. They may also experience relationship problems with others. ...read more.


(McLeod, 2007) If service users do not come often for their therapy, they may not be able to find the therapy effective and may not be able to build a relationship with the therapist. Psychodynamic therapy is not well structured like CBT and some people may prefer more focused and directive approach of CBT therapy. Conclusion For the new counselling centre, the cognitive approach therapy may be the most useful therapy than the psychodynamic. There is number of reasons as to why CBT therapy is more useful than the psychoanalysis therapy. * CBT sessions are well structured and less time consuming as psychoanalysis * Service users would be able to learn self-management and coping strategies * Meet new people * Educational * Opportunities to take part in the session with other people * Share stories and hear about others stories. For the new counselling centre, it is useful to have therapies like CBT because service users would be able to learn and find ways to challenge their negative thoughts. They would also be able to come out of their isolation by meeting new people with similar problems as them. Talking therapies can be effective especially for those people who are suffering from mental health. It provides them a place where they can talk about their feelings and worries with other people that may be going through the same thing as them. As service user may find it hard sometimes to talk about their emotional problems with their family and friend. Psychodynamic approach therapy may not be suitable and useful for the new counselling centre. In this approach therapist will try to make service users to think about their past experiences. In their unconscious mind and this could trigger another episode of distress and service users may not like this and not be able to cope with it. Service users who are going through depression and other anxiety problem, it could lead to them not going to the counselling centre. It may be also that some service users find the duration of the therapy inconvenient for them. ...read more.

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