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Use sociological terminology to describe the principle sociological perspectives and how these apply to Health and Social care.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Unit 7- Sociological perspectives P1) Use sociological terminology to describe the principle sociological perspectives In this assignment I am going to describe the key sociological perspectives that have been used to describe and understand societies and the way that people behave within that society. Culture: The values, beliefs, language, rituals, customs and rules associated with a particular society or social groups. Values: Values are the beliefs and principles that establish what is important and seen as worthwhile in a society, what is good or bad, what we are proud of, and what should be avoided. Norms: The guidelines or rules that govern how we behave in society or in groups within that society. Socialisation: The process of learning the visual ways of behaving in society. Social institutions: The major 'building blocks' of society, e.g. the family, the education system, the health services or legal system. FUNCTIONALISM: This is a structuralism theory. Structuralisms are interested in understanding the main institutions in society this includes the family, education, and health services, the economy and also looks at things like political institutions, religious groups and the media. Structuralisms are concerned with how all of these things link with each other and how they influence people and their behavior within a society. Functionalism is an approach that sees the social institutions in society working in harmony with each other. It sees individuals within that society making a contribution towards the smooth running of their own society. This approach can be traced back to Auguste Comte (1798-1857) which may be best understood by using a biological analogy. Just as the body can be understood and studied by considering its constituent parts, for example, the lings, heart, liver and kidneys, so society can be studied in terms of its institutions. Just as the body functions through the efficient interrelationships of major organs and there are mechanisms to deal with disease, so the different institutions in society have particular contributions to make; they work together and have method of social control to deal with 'unexpected' members or groups. ...read more.

Middle

The biomedical model of health looks at individual physical functioning and describes bad health and illness as the presence of disease and ill symptoms as a result of physical causes such as injury or infections and doesn't look at social and psychological factors. Biomedical concentrates on the individual as for socio-medical it does not concentrate on the individual. * Socio-medical model Socio-medical model- An approach to health and illness with a focus on the social and environment factors that influence our health and well-being, including the impact of poverty, poor housing, diet and pollution. The social model of health looks at how society and our environment affect our everyday health and well-being, including factors such as are social class, poverty, poor housing, diet, pollution and income. Poor housing and poverty causes respiratory problems, and in reaction to these causes and start of ill health, the socio-medical model aimed to encourage society to include better housing and introduce programs to undertake poverty as a result. Research designates that life expectancy went up and death rates began to fall, especially infant mortality rates, with the improvements in sanitation and the provision of clean water, the building of new council houses and generally improved standards of living in the late-nineteenth/early -twentieth centuries. The socio-medical model assembles more simply with the conflict theorists than the functionalists. The conflict theorist explains the shorter life expectancy and the relatively higher rates of ill health with the poor as a significance of the inequalities in society and the life situations of the disadvantaged. The poor mostly have inadequate diets; live in damp houses, often inner city areas where the impact of unemployment and environmental pollution is possibly very high. The verdict groups in society, the politicians and the owners of industries, are not willing, they would say, to make the changes that would be required to protect the poor from ill health and disease. ...read more.

Conclusion

For example it has been said that there are regional trends in the incidence of lung cancer across the UK. * The statistical artefact explanation The researchers of the statistical artefact are working on The Black Report suggested that the differences could be explained by the fact that the statistics themselves produced biased picture- that of all those people in the lowest social classes, there was a higher proportion of older people and people working in traditional and more dangerous industries and so it would be expected that they has younger people working in offices, call centres and other service industries. More recent studies have shown that even when the researchers account for this bias in employment and age, they still find a link between low social class and high levels of illness, and lower life expectancy. * Natural or social selection This explanation suggests that it is not low social class and the associated low wages, poverty and poorer housing that cause illness, higher levels of infant mortality rates and lower life expectancy for adults- it is infact the other way round. Individuals are in the lower social class because of their poor health, lack of energy needed for success and promotion. * Cultural or behavioural explanation This explanation focuses on the behaviour and lifestyle choices of people in the lower social classes. There was ecidence that people in the lower social class smoked more, drank more heavily, were more likely to eat junk food and not exercise enough. The poor lifestyle choices were linked to a range of chronic illnesses including heart disease, some forms of cancer, bronchitis, and diabetes. * Material or structural explanation Material explanations claim that those social groups for whom life expectancy is shorter, and for whon infant mortality rates are higher, suffer poorer health from other groups because of inequalities in wealth and income. Poverty and persistently low incomes are associated with poorer diets, poor housing in poor environment, and more dangerous and insecure emploment. ?? ?? ?? ?? Fatima Abas 1 ...read more.

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