• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

What are the effects of smoking on the human body?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

What are the effects of smoking on the human body? Smoking is all around us. In these modern times all you have to do to increase your risks of getting cancer is go to supermarket and buy cancer in a box or cigarettes. (Encarta, 2003) Smoking. Cigarettes are the most commonly bought legal drug in the world. Everywhere you look you can find cigarette adverts, commercials, sponsoring and even on the roads there will be cigarette butts everywhere. Even in third world countries where clean running water is a prayer answered you can buy Marlboro. When you go to the cinema during the adverts you will see a clip of a handsome cowboy living off the land and catching mustangs and at the end of the day when everything is finished what does he like to do? Have a Marlboro Red and relax. But now because of smoking the Marlboro guy is dead. He died from lung cancer due to smoking. But the big managers of the Marlboro Company aren't gong to tell you that though; its bad for business. In this day and age even with all the warnings people still smoke. Out of 50 people asked 98 per cent of them said that the do smoke or have smoked before in their lives. Only 2 per cent of the respondents had said that they had never tried to or had to smoke a cigarette, that was just one person out of fifty (Table 1). But out of the people who did smoke, 90 per cent of them knew the effects of smoking but still smoked regardless of the health hazards (Table 1). ...read more.

Middle

any lymph nodes but doesn't invade any vital organs 3.Stage IIIA - the tumor can have spread to different types of lymph nodes than Stage II (called mediastinal or subcarinal), but they are still on the same side as the tumor and it hasn't invaded any vital organs Stage IIIB - the tumor has either invaded vital adjacent organs and/or spread to lymph nodes on the other side of the mediastinum as the tumor or specific lymph nodes called scalenes or supraclavicular. Also, the patient may have tumor spread to the fluid surrounding the lung 4.Stage IV- the tumor has spread (metastasized) to other organs in the body outside the lungs (like the bones, brain or liver) (www.oncolink.com). The early symptoms of lung cancer are hard to spot but as the tumour grows in size it can produce a variety of symptoms including: � Cough (especially one that doesn't go away after a while or seems to be getting worse in character). � Chest pain. � Shortness of breath. � Coughing up blood and bloody phlegm. � New onset of hoarseness or wheezing. � Recurrent problems with pneumonia and bronchitis. � Weight loss. � Loss of appetite. � Fatigue. � Bone pain. � Dizziness or double vision. � Numbness or tingling in your arms and legs. � Turning yellow in the skin (jaundice). (www.oncoclink.com). Diagnosis issue/problems. There are problems with these symptoms because these are not direct effects from lung cancer. Many of these can be caused by totally different things that have nothing to do with cancer. For example, weight loss. People can lose weight from many different things not just cancer. Loss of appetite can be a form of anorexia not cancer and a loss of appetite leads to weight loss because of lack of eating. ...read more.

Conclusion

But chemotherapy has problems though. It doesn't just kill the cancerous cells it also kills all the other cells on the way so this means that you can get very sick from it. Patients usually lose their hair, skin colour loss and vomiting. But chemotherapy has been known to be very reliable for killing off cancerous tissue. There are many different chemotherapy drugs, and they are often given in combinations. Patients will usually have to go to a clinic to get the chemotherapy because many of the drugs have to be given through a vein. Different chemotherapy regimens are used for different purposes. Some of the drugs used in lung cancer chemotherapy include: Etoposide (and Teniposide), Cisplatin (and Carboplatin), Ifosfamide, Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, Doxorubicin, Paclitaxel, Docetaxel, Gemcitabine (Gemzar(r)) and Vinorelbine (Navelbine). Lung cancer patients are usually and most commonly treated with radiation therapy. It comes from an external source, and it requires patients to come in 5 days a week for up to 6-8 weeks to a radiation therapy treatment center. The treatment takes a few minutes, and it is painless. Radiation therapy is often combined with surgery and is important in the treatment of all types of lung cancer. It may be recommended before surgery to shrink a tumor to make it easier for the surgeon to remove. Radiation may be used after surgery if there are risk factors that make it likely for a tumor to come back in the lungs. Sometimes radiation is used instead of surgery in patients who can not have surgery. The best way to get rid of lung cancer or not to have it is to quit smoking or to have never smoked before. If you quit or have never smoked the chances of getting lung cancer are dramatically reduced. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Healthcare section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Healthcare essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigating Diseases. I will be looking at and comparing communicable and non communicable diseases. ...

    4 star(s)

    Some have a flu-like illness, called HIV sero-conversion syndrome, a month or two after exposure to the virus. This illness may cause a variety of symptoms. I will now explain a bit about how each symptom can affect the persons P.I.E.S life.

  2. P2 - Physiology of fluid balance

    As I have already discussed previously within this assignment, the carrier proteins are very precise in what materials they allow to pass through the membrane as it is selectively permeable. The plasma membrane is highly permeable to water but not all ions or molecules. The plasma membrane has many functions.

  1. Ovarian cancer

    Until recently, most talc powders were contaminated with asbestos. Conceptually, talcum powder on the perineum could reach the ovaries by absorption through the cervix or vagina. Since talcum powders are no longer contaminated with asbestos, the risk is probably no longer important (Barber, 200). The high fat content of whole milk, butter, and meat products has been implicated with an increased risk for ovarian cancer in general.

  2. mechanisms of fatigue

    * ATP must be replaced * PC stores must be replenished * Lactic acid must be removed * Myoglobin must be replenished with oxygen * Glycogen stores must be replenished The replacement of ATP and PC, and the removal of lactic acid take place within 20 minutes of stopping exercise,

  1. Measuring pain

    pain is needed, as in a pain clinic or clinical research setting. The issue of reliability has been addressed in numerous reports, particularly as it concerns the VAS and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. These reports do not lead to a consensus on reliability of these measurements.

  2. The Basics of Ayurvedic Detox

    If they become imbalanced due to diet, lifestyle, stress or even negative thoughts our health suffers. Patients are influenced by one or more dominant "doshas" or they may be a combination type. The belief is that they can affect outlook as well as physical constitution.

  1. Kids and Drugs

    I smoke so I don''t think about mum who I know gets beaten up by her husband. I can''t get to sleep unless I''ve had a cone. I can''t rely on my friends because all they see is the mate who can score a good deal.

  2. Public Health Issue- Skin Cancer (Had A*)

    It is concerned with the effects of the natural environment can have on people such as sunburn and skin cancer. ?Malignant melanomas are the least common but most serious type of skin cancer, with 11,767 new cases diagnosed in 2008. Melanomas can occur in other body organs, e.g. the eye.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work