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What are the effects of smoking on the human body?

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Introduction

What are the effects of smoking on the human body? Smoking is all around us. In these modern times all you have to do to increase your risks of getting cancer is go to supermarket and buy cancer in a box or cigarettes. (Encarta, 2003) Smoking. Cigarettes are the most commonly bought legal drug in the world. Everywhere you look you can find cigarette adverts, commercials, sponsoring and even on the roads there will be cigarette butts everywhere. Even in third world countries where clean running water is a prayer answered you can buy Marlboro. When you go to the cinema during the adverts you will see a clip of a handsome cowboy living off the land and catching mustangs and at the end of the day when everything is finished what does he like to do? Have a Marlboro Red and relax. But now because of smoking the Marlboro guy is dead. He died from lung cancer due to smoking. But the big managers of the Marlboro Company aren't gong to tell you that though; its bad for business. In this day and age even with all the warnings people still smoke. Out of 50 people asked 98 per cent of them said that the do smoke or have smoked before in their lives. Only 2 per cent of the respondents had said that they had never tried to or had to smoke a cigarette, that was just one person out of fifty (Table 1). But out of the people who did smoke, 90 per cent of them knew the effects of smoking but still smoked regardless of the health hazards (Table 1). ...read more.

Middle

any lymph nodes but doesn't invade any vital organs 3.Stage IIIA - the tumor can have spread to different types of lymph nodes than Stage II (called mediastinal or subcarinal), but they are still on the same side as the tumor and it hasn't invaded any vital organs Stage IIIB - the tumor has either invaded vital adjacent organs and/or spread to lymph nodes on the other side of the mediastinum as the tumor or specific lymph nodes called scalenes or supraclavicular. Also, the patient may have tumor spread to the fluid surrounding the lung 4.Stage IV- the tumor has spread (metastasized) to other organs in the body outside the lungs (like the bones, brain or liver) (www.oncolink.com). The early symptoms of lung cancer are hard to spot but as the tumour grows in size it can produce a variety of symptoms including: � Cough (especially one that doesn't go away after a while or seems to be getting worse in character). � Chest pain. � Shortness of breath. � Coughing up blood and bloody phlegm. � New onset of hoarseness or wheezing. � Recurrent problems with pneumonia and bronchitis. � Weight loss. � Loss of appetite. � Fatigue. � Bone pain. � Dizziness or double vision. � Numbness or tingling in your arms and legs. � Turning yellow in the skin (jaundice). (www.oncoclink.com). Diagnosis issue/problems. There are problems with these symptoms because these are not direct effects from lung cancer. Many of these can be caused by totally different things that have nothing to do with cancer. For example, weight loss. People can lose weight from many different things not just cancer. Loss of appetite can be a form of anorexia not cancer and a loss of appetite leads to weight loss because of lack of eating. ...read more.

Conclusion

But chemotherapy has problems though. It doesn't just kill the cancerous cells it also kills all the other cells on the way so this means that you can get very sick from it. Patients usually lose their hair, skin colour loss and vomiting. But chemotherapy has been known to be very reliable for killing off cancerous tissue. There are many different chemotherapy drugs, and they are often given in combinations. Patients will usually have to go to a clinic to get the chemotherapy because many of the drugs have to be given through a vein. Different chemotherapy regimens are used for different purposes. Some of the drugs used in lung cancer chemotherapy include: Etoposide (and Teniposide), Cisplatin (and Carboplatin), Ifosfamide, Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, Doxorubicin, Paclitaxel, Docetaxel, Gemcitabine (Gemzar(r)) and Vinorelbine (Navelbine). Lung cancer patients are usually and most commonly treated with radiation therapy. It comes from an external source, and it requires patients to come in 5 days a week for up to 6-8 weeks to a radiation therapy treatment center. The treatment takes a few minutes, and it is painless. Radiation therapy is often combined with surgery and is important in the treatment of all types of lung cancer. It may be recommended before surgery to shrink a tumor to make it easier for the surgeon to remove. Radiation may be used after surgery if there are risk factors that make it likely for a tumor to come back in the lungs. Sometimes radiation is used instead of surgery in patients who can not have surgery. The best way to get rid of lung cancer or not to have it is to quit smoking or to have never smoked before. If you quit or have never smoked the chances of getting lung cancer are dramatically reduced. ...read more.

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