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With reference to one animal or human disease, explain why its economic consequences can vary spatially.

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Introduction

Emily Roscoe With reference to one animal or human disease, explain why its economic consequences can vary spatially. Introduction There are many diseases, which produce economic consequences and which can vary in their effect depending on location. Some are Tuberculosis (TB), Malaria, Ebola Virus and AIDs. Throughout this report I am going to focus on the AIDs virus. HIV is the Human immunodeficiency virus, and AIDs is the Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which it causes. HIV is a slow retrovirus, which means that not only does it take months to show any symptoms and years to develop fully. It invades the white cells by reproducing itself backwards inside them. The white cells are the ones, which would normally produce anti-bodies to aid the body's defence against disease. It is therefore easily spread by bodily contact and possibly without them the carrier realising they have the disease. The body becomes the target of everyday infections and cell changes which cause cancer. While HIV/AIDs is clearly a health problem, the world has come to realise it is also a development problem that threatens human welfare, socio-economic advances, productivity, social cohesion, and even national security. HIV/AIDs reaches into every corner of society, affecting parents, children and youth, teachers and health workers, the rich and the poor. In the last few years the highest growth of HIV/AIDs has been in women and children and therefore the world health organisation is recommended that all pregnant as screened for HIV/AIDs. Economic consequences of HIV/AIDs are: * The costs of funding research * The cost of vaccinations * The loss of people ...read more.

Middle

A decline in HIV prevalence has also been detected among young inner-city women in Addis Ababa in Ethiopia. Infection levels among women aged 15-24 attending antenatal clinics dropped in 2001 (however, similar trends were not evident in outlying areas of the city, this I believe is because they cannot access clinics and education, nor is there yet evidence of them occurring elsewhere in the country). Uganda continues to provide evidence that the epidemic does yield to human intervention. HIV infection levels are on the decline in several parts of the country as shown by the steady drop in HIV prevalence among 15-19-year-old pregnant women. Condom use by single women aged 15-24 almost doubled between 1995 and 2000/2001, and more women in that age group delayed sexual intercourse or abstained entirely, although these positive trends do not counteract the severity of the epidemic in these countries. All of them face massive challenges not only in sustaining and expanding prevention successes, but also in providing adequate treatment, care and support to the millions of people living with HIV/AIDS or the people orphaned by the epidemic. Botswana has become the first African country to adopt a policy to ultimately make anti-retrovirals available to all citizens who need them. However, approximately only 2000 people are currently benefiting from this commitment. In addition, a handful of companies such as Anglo Gold, De Beers, Debswana and Heineken have announced schemes to provide anti-retrovirals to workers and some family members. These are all valuable efforts. ...read more.

Conclusion

Prevention efforts appear not to be reaching the large numbers of men whom increases in unsafe sex are being mirrored by higher rates of sexually transmitted diseases in Australia, Canada, the USA and countries of Western Europe. A telling and ongoing trend of increasing unsafe sex has been documented among men who have sex with men in San Francisco, for example. A survey of self-reported sexual behaviour has shown increases in unprotected anal sex, much of it between sero-discordant partners (i.e., one partner is HIV-positive). The survey also found rising rates of other sexually transmitted diseases among the respondents. Promoting the need for renewed prevention efforts, especially among young people, are recent findings of increases in high-risk behaviours, less frequent condom use and higher rates of sexually transmitted infections in several countries. In the United Kingdom, for example, rates of gonorrhoea, syphilis and chlamydial infections have more than doubled since 1995. To Conclude In conclusion I believe that the economic consequences of the HIV/AIDS virus do spread according to the development of the country. As poor countries still struggle to boost their spending even to levels that fall far short of the need. As a result, millions of people living with HIV/AIDS have to pay for their own health care. In sub-Saharan Africa, some individuals are spending pocket money on HIV/AIDS services themselves. With hard work, funding, education and extra healthcare provisions I do believe that in the future we could reduce the spread of the disease and the spiralling effects on productivity in these countries, hopefully to halt the exponential spread of the disease and maybe even put it on the road to into extinction. 1 ...read more.

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