• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

1905 marked the culmination of the process that began in 1856. Discuss.

Extracts from this document...


The 1905 revolution in Russia was seen by some, namely Alan Woods and Lenin, as a dress rehearsal for the Russian Revolution of 1917; "It was a dress rehearsal, without which the final victory of the proletariat in October 1917 would have been impossible"1. The attempted revolution in 1905 did, however, highlight the changes needed in Russia, economically, politically and socially, for her to be able to function properly as a World power. Whether the revolution in 1905 was directly linked to the events leading from 1856 is questionable, but theorists such as Karl Marx believed it to be just that. The inevitability of the revolution is stemmed from the 'theory of progression' and is used by theorists such as Leo Trotsky and Lenin; Trotsky comparing its inevitability to the inevitability of the rising sun - "The Russian revolution is inevitable and it is as inevitable as the inevitable rising of the sun"2. The Marxist theory of progression states that the revolution of 1905 was the culmination of the process that began in 1856 and was inevitable. The events following the Moscow Speech and the Russian defeat in the Crimean War all supposedly led up to the inevitable revolution in 1905. The humiliation Russia suffered after their defeat by Britain, France and Turkey and the incompetence if the Russian military indicated the need for change and was acknowledged by Alexander II in the Moscow Speech of the same year. ...read more.


Provinces due to the increase in ethnic Latvians and Estonians, the assassination of Bobrikov (a governor-general appointed by Nicholas II in 1898) and mass protest in Finland and the overwhelming opposition to Russification in none other than Russian Poland. It is safe to say that the policy of Russification was a definite faux-pas on the Tsarist government's part and did more damage to Russia than good. This implementation of Russification and other Conservative ideology was greatly responsible for the huge growth of opposition the autocratic government saw in Russia after 1881. The 'Safeguard System', implemented at the same time Russification was, gave the police and the governor-generals almost unrivalled power. With the scare of assassination still apparent, the powers given to the police and governor-generals consisted of having the authority to arrest and detain suspected extremists, fine the local press6 and even shut the press down should they prove to be too outspoken. The control of the state by the Ohkrana served as another way for Alexander III to gain more control over Russia - control that had been compromised during his father's reign. The almost instantaneous growth in control over Russia under Alexander III's rule was hugely contrasting to his father's ruling and gave the proletariat another reason to revolt; yet another link to the revolution of 1905. ...read more.


After a certain point in the process, however - the second war defeat Russia suffered - it would have become apparent that a revolution was on its way. The inevitability of it cannot have been determined until the surging growth in opposition and the huge uprising within the proletariat working classes. To call the revolution in 1905 a 'culmination' of a process is incorrect as the word 'culmination' is defined by Webster's Dictionary as "a final climactic stage"10. It is clear that the revolution in 1905 simply served as a "dress rehearsal"11 for the revolution in 1917. Ultimately, the events leading up to the revolution in 1905 could be seen as being independent of each other until a certain point at which the revolution could be forewarned. That is not to say that the revolution was inevitable, it wasn't, but it cannot be denied that once the autocracy faced enough opposition without enough being done on their part, change was sure to follow - that it was in the form of a people's revolution is irrelevant. To say that it was a 'culmination' of a process is also wrong due to the reasons stated previously. Therefore, while the revolution wasn't inevitable to begin with, there was certainly a point in the 'process' which meant that a revolution was probable. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Other Historical Periods section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Other Historical Periods essays

  1. To What Extent was the 1905 Revolution due to the Consequences of the 1904-1905 ...

    However, for years the people of Russia looked up to him. The Tsar believed he had been appointed by God to lead and guide his people. He believed that he was only answerable to God and no-one else. He had an Imperial Council to advise him and a cabinet of

  2. The First English Civil War

    There was no further talk of the concentric advance of three armies on London. The fiery prince and the methodical Earl of Forth (now honoured with the Earldom of Brentford) were at one, at least, in recommending that the Oxford area, with its own garrison and a mobile force, should be the pivot of the field armies' operations.

  1. The structures of the Soviet State were created by Lenin and abused by Stalin. ...

    which made Stalin's monstrous feats technically possible".10 Stalin wanted what had never been achieved in Britain before; total control over people's lives. It was this which led him into wanting to make the government more centralised and internal. Stalin's use of fear and the Cheka was what ultimately allowed him

  2. The storming of the BAstille was the most significant event in 1789

    Many went on to join the foreign opponents of the revolution, and the Bastille was a significant trigger for this. The humiliation of the king, was heard of over many continents, Gouverneur Morris, who became the US ambassador to France, reported to George Washington; "You may consider the revolution to

  1. How effectively did the design and decoration of the Parthenon suit its function?

    A large proportion of the temple was based around the festivals that happened every year. There were two kinds of festival that revolved around the Parthenon, there was the panathenaic festival annually and every 4 years there was the great panathenaia at which 100 heifers were sacrificed.

  2. Despite frequent changes in policy, Russian and Soviet governments were spectacularly unsuccessful in securing ...

    For example; the population in St Petersburg grew from 1?300 thousand (1987) to 2?100 thousand (1914)[16]. This shows that the economic growth had a positive impact on society and the country was doing well under the Tsarist regime. However, although to the naked eye Russia seemed to be doing well, their growth wasn?t so great.

  1. The outbreak of the 1905 revolution was due to the grievances of the peasants ...

    Therefore both of them were reactionaries. Furthermore, a crucial influence on the 1905 revolution could be due to the economically backward system and the lack of development. However, it could be argued that a reason for the revolution was due to Nicholas II himself rather than the system he inherited.

  2. Notes on Cleopatra and her links with Rome

    From the loft view of the court at Alexandria, the Ptolemaic kings had preserved the integrity, stability and prosperity of the county. However, to the native Egyptians, the Greeks were the masters who imposed upon their lives. In 80BC, Sulla (Roman dictator)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work