• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Analyse the causes of the Russian civil war

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Analyse the long and short term causes of the 1917 February Russian revolution The Russian Revolution was one of the most important events in modern world history. Its impact was evident in both Europe and America. Although the Revolution did not directly spread Communism, it did give various other struggling third world countries an enticing example to follow. Despite its occurrence at the height of World War I, the February Revolution traced its roots far beyond the immediate effects of the war. Chief among these was Imperial Russia's failure, throughout the 19th century, to modernize its archaic social, economic and political structures. This included; An inefficient, autocratic political structure, complicating attempts at reform, an overwhelmingly rural population (83% were peasants in 1897), economic and technological backwardness in comparison to Western Europe, growth of opposition parties, an outdated and disorganized army, and a relatively corrupt bureaucracy. The causes of the February revolution encompass Russia's political, social, and economic situation. ...read more.

Middle

The social causes of the Russian Revolution mainly stemmed from centuries of oppression towards the lower classes by the Tsarist regime and Nicholas's failures in World War I. Roughly 85% of the Russian people were peasants, under harsh oppression from the upper classes and the Tsarist regime. Serfdom is most often associated with the medieval ages, yet it accurately describes the social situation in Russia under Nicholas: A small class of noble landowners controlled a vast number of indentured peasants. In 1861, Tsar Alexander II of Russia emancipated these peasants not for moral reasons, but because it was preventing Russia from advancing socially. This newfound freedom was of limited use, however, since they now had no land to work. As a result, the government drafted new terms that gave the peasants set amounts of land to cultivate. However, the amount of land they were given was insufficient, thus mass riots broke out. ...read more.

Conclusion

Mutinies began to occur, and in 1916 reports of fraternizing with the enemy started to circulate. Soldiers went hungry and lacked shoes, munitions, and even weapons. Rampant discontent lowered morale, only to be further undermined by a series of military defeats. Nicholas was blamed, and what little support he had left began to crumble. As this discontent and utter hate of Nicholas grew, the State Duma (lower class of Russian parliament comprised of landowners, townspeople, industrial workers, and peasants) issued a warning to Nicholas in November 1916 stating that disaster would overtake the country unless a constitutional form of government was put in place. In typical fashion, Nicholas ignored them. As a result, Russia's Tsarist regime collapsed a few months later during the February Revolution of 1917. A year later, the Tsar and his family were executed. Ultimately, Nicholas's inept handling of his country and the War destroyed the Tsarist regime and cost him both his rule and his life. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Explain how the effects of the First World War caused the collapse of the ...

    4 star(s)

    They were ready to seize power. The unpopularity of the Provisional Government and Lenin's strong leadership acted together to help the Bolsheviks seize power in 1917. One of these factors alone would not have been enough to secure power for the Bolsheviks. The unpopularity of the Provisional Government alone would not have been enough to bring

  2. Stalin's Impact On Russia And The Russian People.

    Also, Stalin opposed single managers and workers did not control the industry. Following capitalism, wages and even living conditions were linked to skills. Finally, Stalin played a large part in improving daily life for the Russian people after the Five-Year Plans.

  1. The Russian Civil war, 1918-21

    Therefore they either stayed out of the war or joined the reds. This contradicts the first line for not all the peasants hated the Communist regime. The writer of this source is a businessman and is therefore likely to be middle class.

  2. Vietnam war

    In a January 1967 article written for the Chicago Defender, Martin Luther King, Jr. openly expressed support for the antiwar movement on moral grounds. * King's statements rallied African American activists to the antiwar cause and established a new dimension to the moral objections of the movement.

  1. How far were long term causes more important than short term causes in the ...

    to get the politics back to the right after there was a major move of politics to the left and consisted of the appointment of Vielle as chief minister, the reintroduction of press censorship and the electoral system was changes again.

  2. What were the causes of World War II?

    The defeated powers had difficulty paying reparations to the victors, and the victors had difficulty repaying their loans to the United States. The shift from a wartime economy to a peacetime economy caused further problems. Italy and Japan suffered from too many people and too few resources after World War I.

  1. The causes of the second world war - Problems 1919-1924.

    The League of Nations eventually set up a commission, led by Lytton, to inquire into the Manchuria situation. In October Japan withdrew from the League in protest and ignored its rulings. The league took no action. � In June 1932 the Lausanne Conference succeeded in canceling reparations.

  2. Trotsky - Succession, Revolutionary Success, Civil War Hero, Death, Failure and End

    Soldiers still posted in Petrograd were loyal to the Bolsheviks, and had no will to fire on their 'comrades', not to mention the fact that the railways had been sabotaged on Trotsky's orders and that Kerensky was unable to contact the Front due to the telephone exchange being cut.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work