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Arab-Israeli Conflict 1948-1996.

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Introduction

YR 12 MODERN HISTORY ASSESSMENT TASK Term 3, 2004 Arab-Israeli Conflict 1948-1996 Student Number: 347 Assess the effectiveness of the Arab and Israeli peace initiatives from the 1970s to the 1990s. The Arab and Israeli peace initiatives that have taken place between the 1970s and 1990s have been both successful and unsuccessful; however the successful initiatives have been limited in reaching the ultimate goal of peace between the Arabs and Israelis. There have been three major peace initiatives that include the Camp David Accords, Madrid Peace Conference and the Oslo Accords. To assess the effectiveness of these peace initiatives, a look at how successful the outcomes are will be necessary to make a judgement. On the 22nd November, 1967 the United Nations presented a resolution that was to solve the Arab-Israeli conflict, but as a result it only contrasted this intention. UN Resolution 242 sent both nations interpreting the text differently. This caused an uproar over which territories belonged to whom, each side arguing for their own benefit. This resolution acted as a catalyst that propelled a number of initiatives to solve the Arab-Israeli conflict. When the October War broke out on 6th October in 1973, the UN quickly ordered a cease-fire, which was soon broken. It was only till the US pressured Israel into agreeing to a second cease-fire that the war ended. ...read more.

Middle

Yet nothing positive resulted for the Israeli-Palestinian crisis, as the second accord was a failure. The Stockholm Declaration of December 1988 had the PLO recognising Israel as a state and condemning any acts of terrorism. Yasser Arafat continually talked of peace and gave into the demands of the US. I believe that Arafat was talking of solutions and the willingness of the PLO to make peace because he wanted the PLO to be included in the negotiations with the US and the Israelis. In response to Kissinger, "... will not recognize or negotiate with the PLO as long as the PLO does not recognize Israel's right to exist and does not accept Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338." (1975) The PLO were still continuing with their acts of violence and terrorism when Arafat was talking of reconciliation and settling the Arab-Israeli conflict with diplomacy. The Stockholm Declaration was not an effective peace initiative as Arafat had the wrong intentions for the 'recognition of Israel.' It can also be seen that the PLO were not ready to comply with the US and Israel conditions that were set for the Madrid Peace Conference. Due to the lack of credibility from Arafat, no further peace resulted from the Stockholm Decleration. On October 30th, 1991 five nations were invited to a peace conference at Madrid that was once again overlooked by the US. ...read more.

Conclusion

This Accord created a wider pathway to peace, with Israel and Jordan ending their conflict. This encouraged other Arab nations to consider their option to reconcile with Israel. In September 1995, the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement on the West Bank and Gaza allowed the Palestinians to occupy parts of the West Bank, which has been controlled by Israelis since 1967. This allowed the Palestinians to conduct their own internal affairs without interference and cut down the tension between themselves and the Israelis. This made the Oslo Accord especially effective as peace initiatives during this time period, as it took large steps towards handling the Palestinian-Israeli conflict that had been avoided and unsuccessful in previous initiatives. Overall the Oslo Accords had a prominent effect on the attitudes that the two nations had of each other. It was recognised that steps could be taken towards making peace between the Arabs and Israelis, if they each compromised in return. In conclusion, the peace initiatives each had their own successes and failures that decided how effective they were in solving the Arab-Israeli conflict. The Camp David Accords helped to solve the Egypt-Israel conflict, but did not touch on the Palestinian problem. The Madrid Peace Conference was effective in laying down the pavement for the Oslo Accords. The Oslo Accords were effective in combining the separate nations, encouraging the Arab-Israeli conflict to find peace. Each initiative was effective, but it has been limited as the Arab-Israeli conflict still exists till this day. ...read more.

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