• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17
  18. 18
  19. 19
  20. 20
  21. 21
  22. 22
  23. 23
  24. 24
  25. 25
  26. 26
  27. 27
  28. 28
  29. 29
  30. 30
  31. 31
  32. 32
  33. 33
  34. 34
  35. 35
  36. 36
  37. 37
  38. 38
  39. 39
  40. 40
  41. 41
  42. 42
  43. 43
  44. 44
  45. 45
  46. 46
  47. 47
  48. 48
  49. 49
  50. 50
  51. 51

Armed forces.

Extracts from this document...


Armed forces This section provides information on the soldiers, sailors and airman who gained, maintained and then lost an empire. It must be remembered that the vast majority of the empire's military manpower was recruited from outside the mother country. It is interesting to note that some of the fiercest resistors to the British went on to become the staunchest allies and defenders of her empire; Highlanders, Sikhs and Gurkhas are perhaps the best examples of this phenomena. The military history of the empire is rich in colour and variety but is also inevitably linked to the darker and more sinister side of the empire through conquest, pacification and destruction. The tentacles of the military spread throughout the empire and beyond, the armed forces were not only the conquerors and defenders of the empire but also provided the garrisons that policed the vast expanses of territory and enabled communication over the vast distances involved. The military was very much the most important institution of the empire. Land forces Infantry The years around 1783 were tumultuous ones for the army and things were about to become even more difficult in the near future. The Army was coming to the end of its actions in the 13 colonies. Political and military defeat hung heavily over Britain at the time. The army had borne the brunt of the unsuccessful campaign and so were associated with the failure. Life was to become even more dangerous and precarious for the British army as it become embroiled in the highly difficult task of containing the expansion of Revolutionary and then Napoleonic France. The army would therefore be forced to expand to an unusually large size and would be strained to its limits. The prominent role played by the British army in ultimately defeating Napoleon would restore its pride and prestige both at home and overseas. In the period following victory in 1815, the British army was regarded as the fire brigade of the Empire - being sent to wherever there were disturbances or problems. ...read more.


Cables Being Laid in Canada The value of Britain's world wide telegraphic system actually contributed to Britain's strategic worries. The cables were kept in British colonies or under British controlled seas as much as possible, but this was not always avoidable. Whenever this occurred the British worried about interceptions of messages or of cutting the link altogether. For example, the link to Australia passed over Dutch Java, the South American cable ran through Portugese Madeira, but probably the biggest headache of all to Britain's strategic thinkers was the cable that ran from London to Calcutta. In fact, there were three such cables. One ran from Lowestoft to Germany, through Russia, Persia and in to India. Apart from the strategic nightmares of this essential line of communication was the fact that the Germans and Russians were in a position to keep the costs of using this cable artificially high. The second cable was not much better. It ran across Europe to Constantinople, across Turkey to the Persian Gulf and then by cable to Karachi. Little reliance could be placed on the Ottoman empire. The third cable ran from London to Gibraltar to Malta, Egypt to Aden and then on to Bombay. This looked secure enough, but still relied on using Spanish relay stations to boost the signals. Besides, it was generally more economic to send the messages up over France from Malta. To add to the strategic difficulties the vagaries of the currents and weather caused yet further headaches. Storms, winds, silt, even fishermen could all accidentally disrupt the sending of messages. Combined with the distances involved, it is little wonder the tariffs could be so high. 4 shillings per word to India, and 6s. 9d. to Australia. And yet, the British were convinced that the value of the system was worth the price. All over the world, Englishmen were employed laying or maintaining cables or operating booster stations along the line. ...read more.


Satellite navigation 1968 Mauritius and Swaziland gain Independence Tet in Vietnam; Czechoslovakia invaded by Warpac 1969 Ulster troubles Open University Woodstock First man on the moon; Concorde 1970 Fiji and Tongan Independence Floppy disk 1971 N. Ireland Internment policy: Bahrain and Qatar become independent Decimalisation of currency 1972 Asians expelled from Uganda; Bangladesh leaves Pakistan; Detente Home video games 1973 Bahamas become Independent Britain joins European Community Oil Shock Skylab 1974 Grenada Independent; IRA bombing of mainland Three day week Watergate; Cyprus invaded by Turkey 1975 Papua New Guinea gains Independence IMF assists Britain End of Vietnam war; Khmer Rouge take over Cambodia Altair 8800 is the first personal computer 1976 Seychelles Independent Callaghan PM Death of Mao Zedong 1977 Deng Xiaoping leads China Pompidou center opens in Paris 1978 Dominica Independent Camp David Accords First test tube baby; First Apple computer 1979 Rhodesian settlement reached; Gilbert Islands becomes Independent Kiribati Thatcher PM USSR invades Afghanistan; Shah if Iran overthrown Arts Sciences 1980 New Hebrides becomes Independent Vanunu; Zimbabwean Independence Iran Iray war (1980 - 8) Golding's Rites of passage Smallpox officially eliminated 1981 Belize independent SDP formed from split in Labour Sadat assassinated in Egypt Space shuttle Columbia; first reports of AIDS 1982 Falkland war Israel invades Lebanon CD's on sale 1983 Grenada invaded by US US Cruise missiles installed Attenborough's Gandhi 1984 Brunei Independent; Hong Kong handover agreement reached Miners' strike Genetic fingerprinting 1985 Britain isolated in Commonwealth over South African sanctions Anglo-Irish agreement Live Aid Desk Top Publishing 1986 Peak Unemployment of 3.5m US bombing of Libya Chernobyl 1987 Fiji leaves Commonwealth Stock Market crisis 1988 Liberal Democrats formed Rushdie's Satanic Verses Hawking's Brief History of Time 1989 Berlin Wall crumbles; Tiananmen square 1990 South West Africa becomes Independent Namibia Poll Tax riots Nelson Mandela freed; Iraq invades Kuwait 1991 Gulf War 1992 Break up of Yugoslavia 1993 Palestinian Israeli peace accords 1994 Multi racial elections in South Africa 1995 Nigeria suspended from Commonwealth Rabin assassinated 1996 South Africa rejoins Commonwealth Rise and rise of the Internet 1997 Hong Kong handed back to Chinese Blair PM Mars landing ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 essays

  1. Why did tension increase in Europe between 1900 and 1914?

    It is true that he had only about half the forces that he believed he needed, but on the other hand, he allowed the army to go on attacking long after it was clear that no real progress was being made.

  2. Muhammed Ali - write about who you admire most in life any why

    Quarry would be the first white American he fought since 1962. In the run up to the Atlanta bout gunshots were fired outside of where Ali was staying. He received a severed head of a black Chihuahua with a message warning him "We know how to handle black draft-dodging dogs in Georgia.

  1. How Significant were the Normandy landings in Defeating Germany in World War Two?

    Germany was a country practically on its own. Whereas on the other side there was Canadians, Russian, American and British all fighting on the same team with a greater number of troops. The Atlantic Ocean was a key battleground in the Second World War because of the large number of

  2. In reviewing the process of decolonization within the British Empire from 1890 to 1997, ...

    How could they be considered one of the world's elites when it faced so many struggles fighting against 'savages,' in their own colonies? Anti Imperialism grew as a substational amount of the British Public began to disagree with the Government and its tactics.

  1. Free essay

    To what extent are Walter Scott(TM)s novels a product of the Scottish Enlightenment? Discuss ...

    The Scottish Enlightenment attitude to history was characterized by meta-sociological theories of the 'natural progress' of cultures and civilizations (Buchan, 1999). Various scholars of the Scottish Enlightenment have referred to this approach to history as 'natural history or, sometimes, 'conjectural history' (Buchan, 1999: p.45).

  2. While surfing the channels on TV you might hear a lot of news about ...

    Let's go back to news on TV. As I said, we might hear terror attacks daily. And these attacks were all committed with bombs. Exploding discos, caf�s, stores, buses, markets and tower buildings. In one word: public domains. An other reason to be scared.

  1. “Generals Win Battles, Resources Win Wars”. How Far Does Your Study of the Period ...

    Yet this theory is rejected at least in part when one considers the siege of Mafeking in the Second Boer War. Outnumbered six to one, inadequately equipped and completely cut off from reinforcements and supplies, it seems implausible that the beleaguered British soldiers could have maintained their position, no matter how skilled their commander.

  2. Why did hitler bomb british cities?

    Alcoholic beverages were watered down. The DORA ushered in a variety of authoritarian social control mechanisms including some that are still in use today, such as the Winston Churchill supported British Summer Time which was enacted in May 1916 as a novel device for boosting wartime production.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work