• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Assess how Successful Anwar Sadats Domestic and Foreign Policies were from 1970 to 1981

Free essay example:

Assess how Successful Anwar Sadat’s Domestic and Foreign Policies were from 1970 to 1981  

The ‘Hero of the Crossing’, Anwar Sadat undoubtedly bought pride and peace to his fellow Egyptians after the rule of Nasser’s defeat and humiliation to his socialist country. His pragmatic view on the way Egypt should be ruled bought him success and failures in both the foreign and domestic policies, despite his premature death in 1981. Some saw the ‘heroic face’ of Egypt as a traitor to Pan Arabism and all that the surviving Nasserites fought for. But it cannot be denied that he placed Egypt’s foot firmly through the door of peace with the area surrounding them and internationally through his spectacular, radical commitments to making peace with Israel, following the legendary Camp David accords.

Firstly, Sadat’s main aim with his foreign policies was to gain permanent peace with Israel, and on the 17th September 1978, he set it in stone at Camp David. On this date, Sadat took a bold, historic step towards peace with Israel – one which turned the back on the period of Pan Arabism that went before him it marked the beginning of the Middle East peace process, one which still holes peace between the two nations today, far beyond his reign. Sadat wanted to gain permanent peace with Israel to cut military costs and therefore boost their economy. Although Camp David had seen a momentous agreement between two very different nations, with a background of war and unrest, relations with other Arab states had detiriated. Sadat knew that bringing Palestinian problems to the table at Camp David would make Israel less likely to promise any sort of peace deal. Therefore, many states in the Middle East didn’t look too kindly upon Sadat due to the feeling of Pan Arabism, thinking he was ‘back-stabbing’ the theory. But, looking back at the concept around that time, it was relatively dead as it was fundamentally unrealistic due to the greed and selfishness still apparent in each nation. Consequently, Sadat’s peace aims were successful and the argument with the Middle East would have expired by the Camp David accords. Sadat was also the first Arab leader to enter into Jerusalem to talk about peace deals with the country. As the first person to enter into the Holy Land, he lost a lot of followers also, but his pragmatic ways taught him that making peace with Israel would cut down military costs tremendously as they would never have a war in the near future. It is clear to see that the extended effort that Sadat put into making strong bonds with Israel at the time did pay off as to this day there has been no unrest between the two countries to the current day, showing that his aim to gain permanent peace with Israel was met and he was extremely successful as later on he received a Nobel Peace Prize as being recognised internationally as making troubles end in the Middle East, troubles which Sadat thought were unnecessary.

The second aim of Sadat was to improve the economic state of his country through gaining strong relations with the US and losing links with the USSR. He had to get out of Nasser’s shadow and gain independence for his country. He was very forward- thinking compared to the previous leader. He wanted to boost the economy in Egypt and he was looking towards the West for the helping hand with his domestic problem. Firstly, he expelled his Soviet advisors in 1972, which received high praise from the West. He knew that with the US’s greatest enemy out of the country, and then they would be prepared to help them out financially. His gamble finally paid off for Sadat as they eventually became one of the largest recipitants of foreign aid from the US. Sadat’s’ country could finally have private investment from the biggest nation of the world and therefore be at the foreground in the Middle East that no other country would wish to fight as they had such strong help. These investments also led to greater links with Israel as the US were both their allies now and therefore there would be no need to go to war and spend surplus amounts of their money on the military.

Sadat’s domestic policy for the economy also introduced large changes to the country as he tried to step out of Nasser’s shadow once again. Sadat’s mind-set was completely different to that of Nasser, as he strived for private foreign investment and controlling inflation through fixing prices. This meant that Sadat could be sure there would be no higher wage demands and that the economy was more predictable, liberalising Egypt’s economy for the better, or so he thought. In the last years of his reign, there were a series of ‘Bread Riots’ protesting against his economic liberalisation, through the public out roar to Sadat’s lifting of prices led to his government having to take control of the prices – reversing themselves. Sadat’s economic domestic policy was very unpopular with the majority of the public – especially the Nasserites. Although there was a lot of public unrest at the time, the rich Egyptians were in favour as they were benefitting from his rule. They lapped up the foreign investment as the lack of control on basics such as bread did not affect them as much. US investment as well made lives for the rich under Sadat’s rule very good, but there was left beneath them a very widening gap between them and the poor.

It cannot be disagreed that Sadat was not a large change in the regular leadership style of the Arab states in the Middle East. The greed, Pan Arabism and selfishness were not apparent in the leader as he strived for peace with Israel and other countries, boosting the economy and making greater links with the western world – all things which were unheard of in the Middle East at the time. Many people did not follow his new way of thinking, the pragmatic style did not agree with them, or was it that perhaps they were not ready for him? And that Nasser had such a large influence on the country that they were indoctrinated in a singular way of thinking, with no room left for different out looks on leadership. Evidence suggests that Sadat was not a failure, he just followed someone with such a great sway on the country that he could not lead without riots and rebellions as they did not want change. The ‘Hero of the Crossing’ was a great leader with the interests of Egypt at heart, and if only his life wasn’t cut tragically short, there could have been plenty more he could have done for the area as a whole.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 section.

(?)
Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Related AS and A Level History Skills and Knowledge Essays

See our best essays

Related AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    "Asses the successes and failures of Mao's domestic policies between 1949 and 1976."

    5 star(s)

    China's second 5 year plan, the "great leap forward" was started in 1958 and ended in 1962. Unlike the first 5 year plan, the great leap forward fell far below its targets and goals. Even though the figures were hided from the people in China, the evident famine in China

  2. Free essay

    Do you consider military intervention in Africa as successful? Focus on the policies in ...

    rescued many thousands of Somalis from famine and improved humanitarian conditions substantially and therefore to a certain extent a success. However, if this was the case all 2nd generation peacekeeping missions would be a success as to a certain degree all operations have saved lives as effectually one is arguing

  1. To what extend do you consider Mao's domestic policies more successful than his foreign ...

    It did not only destroy human lives, it also harassed the Chinese budget and as a result made China very weak. 1950 1952 1957 Economic Development 25,5 45,4 51,4 Education and Culture 11,1 13,6 16,0 Defence 41,5 26,0 19,0 Government Administration 9,3 10,3 7,8 Miscellaneous 2,6 4,7 5,8 Total in

  2. British Domestic life During WW2.

    This caused the government to act in favour of the lower class and make plans for their welfare. A town and country-planning act was passed in 1943. This ensured the building of new houses and would supply 100,000 council houses by the end of 1950.

  1. Mao was essentially more successful in his domestic policies for China, then he was ...

    These three Antis were successful, and fulfilled Mao's plan to get rid of the capitalist class system, and the "problems" linked to it. In 1952 Mao realized that China would need again a new domestic policy and since the three Antis were successful he extended the three Antis and introduced the " five Anti - movement".

  2. Custer - Hero or villain?

    "The white man writing the treaties never meant a word that he said. When we wrote a treaty that said, "You will have the Black Hills as long as the grass shall grow", we never meant that. It was outright lies.

  1. The role of foreign policy on democratic transitions in Armenia and Azerbaijan

    Defining democracy and democratization At this time it is necessary to define some of the terminology in order to clarify what is being implied by democracy and democratization. Democracy as a concept has in the past been defined according to its origins and its goals, in other words, as a

  2. Chinese (Prc) Foreign Policy - the Character of PRC’S Foreign Policy

    Biao arguing that the priority should be the internal enemy, whilst Mao's counter argument was that a US victory in Korea would allow it to gain a foothold in a part of Asia which was very close to China. -When the UN entered Korea in 1950, Zhou Enlai called it an imperialist invasion.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work