• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12

Assess the view that the US Policy of Marshall Aid was motivated mainly by the altruistic desire to help the economic recovery of Europe.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Assess the view that the US Policy of Marshall Aid was motivated mainly by the altruistic desire to help the economic recovery of Europe. Following advice from U.S General Marshall, Marshall Aid was introduced to Europe in 1947. Some argue this policy was motivated mainly through altruistic desire to help the economic reconstruction of Europe; however the four interpretations dismiss this argument, focusing on the need to boost capitalism, preventing communism. The main reasons for Marshall Aid's introduction were political and economic, not altruistic. The theory that Marshall Aid was mainly motivated through altruism isn't credibly acknowledged in any interpretation. Judt acknowledges altruism in his interpretation by stating aid was offered ''to all European countries, without distinction'' and ''Enthusiastic American New Dealers'' had ''urged upon European colleagues'' virtues of ''freer trade, international collaboration and inter-state integration'', however he dismisses altruism and argues other influences had great significance, aid was part of a program to reform the European economy as a whole; Europe would need to ''collaborate in planning'' and ''confer....with each other''. ''Enthusiastic American New Dealers'' supported aid through their own self-interests, not altruistic desire. Balfour, McCauley and Gaddis fail to acknowledge altruism in their arguments, supporting Judt's dismissal. ...read more.

Middle

Washington believed that reestablishment of multilateral trade was key to boosting the economy, the ''protective device'' of aid intended European countries to switch ''from the bilateral to the multilateral as soon as possible''. McCauley references the benefits of multilateral collaboration throughout his interpretation, strengthening Judt's argument that economic reasons were the main motivation behind Marshall Aid. The subsequent boom led to an economic divide as obvious as the political one, with the rich West and poor East. European markets had exceeded pre-war levels of production and income by the 1950's, reducing the influence of the communists and verifying Ryan's argument that Marshall Aid would negate the appeal of communism. The West had no incentive to turn communist now it was booming. All four interpretations agree Marshall Aid would gain popularity if it would have a negative impact on communism. Gaddis outlines the greatest threat to the West wasn't military intervention, rather ''the risk that hunger, poverty and despair might cause Europeans to vote their own communists into office'', who would ''obediently serve Moscow's wishes'', this is a credible argument because communism was benefitting with many European economies bankrupt - Soviet domination was a real danger. ...read more.

Conclusion

However Balfour goes on to concede that other events had greater significance, such as differing ideologies and fear of communism. Since Truman didn't want war in election year, these two factors combined dismiss this view. Several motivational factors were involved in implementing the Marshall Plan. A plan to boost capitalism, argued by Balfour, the economic concerns argued by Judt, and argued by McCauley and Gaddis to be interlinked with political concerns, along with hints of militarism and altruism. However, Gaddis' argument that the US was following a political grand strategy through economic means, and the interlinking economic concerns established by McCauley reference the greatest motivational theory, along with the differing ideologies between U.S and USSR, implied by Judt and Balfour. The Marshall Plan wasn't motivated through altruistic desire to help Europe, despite Churchill's statement that it was ''the most unsordid act in history''5 1 How successful was the Marshall Plan? - Scott Newton, History Today (2000) 2 David Ryan, The United States and Europe in the Twentieth Century (2003) 3 David Ryan, The United States and Europe in the Twentieth Century (2003) 4 The Marshall Plan reconsidered: A complex of Motives - Diane Kunz (1997) p162, 9pgs 5 The American Past, A Study of American History. Joseph Conlin (2009) p. 724 ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Using these four passages and your own knowledge, asses the view that the US ...

    5 star(s)

    the USA but with each other.'4 The altruistic approach of the US was to create a self-sufficient area (Europe), that could easily trade and make itself strong. The source by Judt was written over 20 years after the fall of Communism, which disintegrates much of the hostilities that the Cold War had created between the USSR and the USA.

  2. Why did tension increase in Europe between 1900 and 1914?

    * At the general election in December 1918, the Prime Minister David Lloyd George promised to 'Make Germany Pay'. He demanded that Germany should be 'Squeezed until l the Pips Squeaked'. The British people expected that Germany would be made to pay for the effects of the war.

  1. This graduation paper is about U.S. - Soviet relations in Cold War period. Our ...

    States should extend economic aid to Greece and Turkey on a basis of self-interest, but rather whether America was willing to sanction the spread of tyrannical communism everywhere in the world. Facing the same dilemma Roosevelt had confronted during the 1930S in his effort to get Americans ready for war,

  2. American History.

    bought by European slavers, in exchange for the rum and manufactured goods. - Anyhow, in addition to the relationships above, there was a whole bunch of confusing stuff going on, but it is really not that big a deal so who cares?

  1. The Collapse of Communism in the USSR and Eastern Europe

    These groups would later develop into powerful policy-setting factions. That they should be given more freedom to express their views first dawned upon the Soviet leadership during Brezhnev's tenure, as the intervention in Czechoslovakia in 1968 and the crushing of Solidarity in 1981 proved destructively expensive both financially and in terms of propaganda.

  2. The great war plan, preparations, collapse, and recovery - a revised view

    * While Hitler occupied half of Europe from Norway to Greece, Russia occupied the Baltic states and parts of Finland and Romania. * To keep Hitler appeased all this time, Stalin's Russia provided Germany, as agreed, with large quantities of war materials and even operational support services to assist the German war effort.

  1. American Anticommunism

    to be delivered to Greece and Turkey, both of which he suspected were threatened by a possible communist invasion.

  2. History of the United States

    HAYES became president. As promised, he withdrew (1877) the troops; Reconstruction was over. THE GILDED AGE The era known as the GILDED AGE (1870s to 1890s) was a time of vigorous, exploitative individualism. Despite widespread suffering by industrial workers, southern sharecroppers, displaced American Indians, and other groups, a mood of optimism possessed the United States.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work