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British Imperialism in India.

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Introduction

British Imperialism in India INTRODUCTION Throughout world history it is clearly visible that imperialism has been used in ancient times with the Roman Empire, to the most recent times with the United States. Imperialism by definition is the policy of extending a nation's authority by territorial acquisition or by the establishment of economic and political hegemony over other nations (American Heritage, 251). Imperialism is done when the mother country, the imperialist which is mainly the more powerful country, seeks to expand its territories so it takes advantage of the weakness of an inferior country and takes control of it either peacefully or violently. Imperialism is meant to benefit both countries since the mother country will benefit by acquiring natural resources or other needs from the weaker country and in exchange it will help the weaker country by helping make a more stable government and economy so it can run by itself with no problem. Unfortunately in most cases the mother country is the beneficiary and the weaker country is left in the same or worst conditions. One of the most notable cases of imperialism in history is the British imperialism in India. In that era Britain was one of the most powerful countries in the world and imperialism was getting popular within the potent nations. Britain being the mother country needed resources so they took advantage of India's anarchy and took control the majority of it with no problem. The British ruled India through the East India Company; but they made one big mistake when practicing imperialism in India. ...read more.

Middle

British India was divided into regions and each region had a governor. A resident was sent to council other regions not ruled directly under the British. In 1876, the British Parliament named Queen Victoria Empress of India. The British used sepoys in several wars like the Second Afghan War and the Third Burmese War. (Lal, 131) RISE OF INDIAN NATIONALISM The British felt they had the white man's burden which was that they felt the responsibility of teaching or enforcing their cultures, religions and education to other people from weaker countries, in this case India. India was fragmented and multi-lingual, with 15 major languages and around 720 dialects but the British imposed English to be taught as the only language. This unified the different regions of India because now they could communicate easily using English. Western ideas and political principles now reached India and the people were starting to learn about them and started to practice them. The British had shot themselves in the foot because know the people were discontent with their rule and they wanted to have an independent democracy like the ones in the west. (Kate, 2) Indians were not allowed to have high positions in the army nor the government. In 1885, a number of Indian lawyers and professional, most of them educated with western principles, formed the Indian National Congress. Members of this congress belonged to many different religions and cam from different parts of India. They debated political and economic reforms, the future of India, and right for the Indian people. ...read more.

Conclusion

India became and independent nation on August 15, 1947 and Pakistan one day before that. Gandhi died in New Delhi on his way to pray, when a Hindu fanatic who hated Gandhi for his tolerance towards Muslims, shot him to death. (Lal, 133) CONCLUSION The British Imperialism in India had both its good and bad effects like everything. Indians had better chances for an education. Most Indian people still could not read, but some young Indians did get an education. The English language was taught in the schools. Some Indian students were even sent to British schools for a higher education. Law and order was improved in India. The British organized the police to break up bands of robbers. The British made medical care and health conditions better in many Indian cities and some larger villages. India got new industries and a new railroad system. There were its drawbacks as well for example India's wealth and resources were used to help Great Britain, not India. All the manufactured goods that the British were bringing in were ruining Indian industries. British rule was destroying the culture of India. By making religious and political bad feelings stronger, the British were harming India. Educated Indians did not have much chance to move ahead in India. British people took the highest government jobs. Today Pakistan and India are constantly fighting over some disputed territory called Kashmir, and this causes a great threat to the world since both of them have nuclear weapons. Britain's biggest mistake in running India was the establishment of English as a unifying language and by acquainting Indians with European political principles, which led to Indian resentment of British nationalism and ultimately to the British loss of control over India. ...read more.

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