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Compare the factors of the rise of Mussolini to those of Hitler.

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Introduction

Compare the factors of the rise of Mussolini to those of Hitler A. Similarities: Benito Mussolini Adolf Hitler Decisions of the Paris Peace Conference Italy joined the First World War in 1915. Yet after the war Britain, France and other victorious allies did not fulfill their territorial promises as stated in the Treaty of London. Italians felt cheated. Since the Italian government failed to fight for the gains, it was deemed incompetent. Mussolini who promised revival of the glory of the ancient Roman Empire naturally got popular support. Germany was the major defeated country of the First World War. She was forced to sign the harsh Treaty of Versailles. She was to lose large pieces of lands, pay an indemnity of �6.6 billion; her army had to include 100,000 men only; her navy included 6 battleships only. Germany could not have an air force, tanks and submarines. She could not be united to Austria; she had to accept the "war-guilt clause". The treaty was humiliating. The Weimar government who signed the treaty was deemed a "traitor". Hitler who posed to be the "enemy of the Versailles Diktat" naturally popular support. ...read more.

Middle

Mussolini gave up his socialist ideas and changed to a protector of private property. He got the support of the propertied class at once. Also, Pope Pius XI showed goodwill to Mussolini since he opposed the ideas of atheism of the Communist Party. There was the Spartakist Rising in Germany in 1919, which frightened the capitalists and landowners. The situation improved in 1924-29. Yet in 1929-32 the Communist Party got widespread support during the Great Depression. The German capitalists and landowners supported Hitler who was anti-communist. Social Unrest Unemployed demobilized soldiers used to disrupt the social order. Also, there was street violence between the leftists and rightists. People wanted a strong man to restore the law and order. Though the Freikorps had been disbanded in 1920, yet the demobilized soldiers continued to disrupt the social order. Street violence between the leftists and rightists revived in 1929-32 when the Great Depression hit Germany. People wanted a strong man to restore the law and order. Individual Abilities As an opportunist, Mussolini used to change his policy platforms to meet the current trends. He gave up socialist ideas and thus got the support of capitalists. ...read more.

Conclusion

Hitler had won two medals of Iron Cross for his bravery in the First World War. General Ludendroff had been his supporter. Indeed, the Nazi Party enlisted a lot of ex-soldiers. In 1933 Hitler became Chancellor partly owing to the nomination of General Schleicher. Peasant Support Mussolini showed apathy to the Italian peasants. In elections Hitler tried best to appeal for the peasants' support. He promised to protect their hereditary tenures and reject imported foreign grains. The German peasants supported him enthusiastically. Great Depression Mussolini had come to power before the Great Depression. Hitler's rise to power was largely due to the Great Depression. International Circumstances Mussolini had come to power in 1922. At that time, collective security had not collapsed yet. In the late 1920s the U.S. had been crippled by the Great Depression. The Soviet Union was busy with internal reforms. Both Britain and France suffered from economic hardship. The League of Nations was unable to stop the aggression of Mussolini. All these encouraged the revival of German ultra-nationalism. Hitler found it easy to spread his Nazi ideas. Becoming Dictator Mussolini was never a complete dictator. Above him there was the king. Even the Pope could check his behaviour. In 1934 Hindenburg died. Hitler concentrated all power into his own hands. He became a complete dictator. 1 ...read more.

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