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Describe the process by which italy was said to be unified between 1860 and 1871

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Describe the process by which Italy was said to be unified between 1860 and 1871. The kingdom of Italy was proclaimed in 1861 however Venetia was still under Austrian rule and Rome was guarded buy French troops. Therefore unification remained incomplete as the Italians would not consider it unified until it was unified geographically, which could then lead to unity nationally. It was because of these views events occurred in 1861 and 1871 allo9wingt this desire to be accomplished. Final unification started when Italy received Venetia as a result of the Prussian war with Austria consequently they only needed Rome. This they achieved through many different attempts. The first was when Garibaldi tried to lead a campaign in 1862 to free Rome however this failed twice because of the Franco - Prussian war that French troops withdrew from Rome as a result of the pope willing to become part of a new unified Italy with Rome as the capital. There was also political unification as the piedmontese constituencies wee spread across Italy therefore leading to cultural unification which lead to the Brigands civil war in the south. The Italian saw Rome as the capital and this was the reason why it caused the biggest problem. The main reason for it being the capital was because it had significant historical basis, representing the past greatness especially with the Roman Empire. ...read more.


Rome was relying greatly on Prussian assistance like Venetia as well as being an embarrassing episode for the Italians. When war broke out in July 1817 between France and Prussia the government of Florence was financially too week to progress into Rome therefore thy declared neutrality. In August Neapolitan was forced to withdraw his troops from the papal states as they wee require back in France to defend it from Prussian defeat. Even though Napoleon had left the Italians they still did not make any movement towards Rome. Action was only taken to gain Rome after the battle of Sedan, it lead to the French's defeat and their empire collapsing. Yet there was still another obstacle to final unification, which was the Pope who refused to negotiate. This was the reason why 50,000 Italian troops crossed the border into the Patrimony of St Peter on 11 September. The pope was out numbered as he had only 15,000 troops. Nevertheless he did surrender when the walls of Rome had been breeched on 20 September to prevent any bloodshed. Victor Emmanuel entered Rome in 7 December and declared it the new capital. However there were still problems as the pope refused to recognise the Italian Kingdom and ha also believed himself to be the prisoner of the Vatican. ...read more.


There was also the effect piedmontese law on other states. Piedmonts religious laws separated the state from the church this caused a great deal of problems as the pope issued a degree forbidding Catholics to take part in the states politics. There were also economic hard shipped experienced by the south, as there was free trade, which was in place to protect industry. Even the state army was mostly incorporated of napoleon troops rather than garibaldis. Everything was the decision of the central state only including education foreign and diplomatic services. Now that Italy had been united and all the states were combined this lead to an increase in taxes to allow for Italy total cost to be met. The increased taxes were used to pay for debts that Italy had accumulated largely because of piedmonts modernisation, as well as military expenditure which doubled because of the civil war. Grist tax was also reintroduced which devastating effects on the poor as they now had had to pay on the grinding of wheat. This lead to there being hatred which was established for piedmont this meant that there would be no sense of wanting unity for Italy. However there was never really opposition against this and piedmont continued to be the central state. However the divide between the north and south continued so there were and not still nationally unified. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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