• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe the stages by which Mussolini undermined democracy in Italy in the years 1922-1925.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Describe the stages by which Mussolini undermined democracy in Italy in the years 1922-1925. Matt S. When Mussolini was appointed Prime Minister on 30 October 1922, many Italians thought that the coalition formed would be as transient as others have been before it. Very few could have guessed that three years later, Mussolini would announce a dictatorship, and least of all Benito himself, who had no fixed ideas nor specific plans on how to last longer than his predecessors. Yet, he proved to be the master of opportunistic tactics and by assuming emergency powers, convincing the conservative establishment, appeasing the radicals, utilizing the Acerbo Law, and exploiting the Matteotti crisis, in 1925 his domination of Italian politics was firmly established. Although made Prime Minister, Mussolini continued to cultivate violence and after a series of threatening statements, (one of which was "I have 300,000 black shirts that could abolish the constitution but at least for the present I do not wish to do so''), managed to convince parliament that because of the breakdown of law and order and the threat of a Bolshevik revolution, he needed emergency powers. ...read more.

Middle

In combination with the expulsion of its leader Sturzo, by the Pope, the PPI was beginning to die out and was not a threat of significance to PNF any more. Slowly and confidently, Mussolini was mollifying the indispensable agents for his 'hover' in power. Consequently, many of the fascist extremists and syndicalists, including certain ras were suspicious about Mussolini's concession and saw them as a deterrent to the 'second fascist revolution'. This meant that they wanted Mussolini to form a dictatorship, and fast. They were however, Fascists, and so Mussolini, rather than showing brutality, appeased them by creating the Grand Fascist Council. Mussolini was the head of the Council and it solely consisted of Fascist Ras. Although it had no legal status until 1928, it undercut the functions of the Cabinet and certainly occupied the ras with (seemingly) important decision-taking. While this went on Fascist squads were disbanded and converted into the MVSN- the National Security Voluntary Militia, paid (!) and full-time. The 'volunteers' swore an allegiance not to the State or the King or even the Fascist Party, but to Benito Mussolini. ...read more.

Conclusion

Finally, the last significant stage was the brutal murder of the socialist leader Giacomo Matteotti, a well-known critic of Mussolini and his policies. When highly positioned fascists such as Dumini and Filipelli were implicated in the murder, there was a widespread belief that the Duce had something to do with it. Riots, unrest, and numerous fiery questions posed on the government shook Mussolini's chair and he himself was seen 'red-eyed and unshaven'. However, on 3 January 1925, he decided to 'personally' stand behind fascist action (except the murder) and craftily ask for 'personal' powers in order to alleviate problems. He was granted this notion due the divide within his opponents, as some decided to leave parliament with the Aventine Secession call-sign, and the King's belief that now, more than ever, Mussolini can be controlled. In conclusion, there were several stages through which Mussolini undermined democracy in the years 1922-1925 with most important being the assumption of emergency powers, 'swindling' the conservative establishment for support, appeasing the radicals by creating authoritarian bodies, utilizing the Acerbo Law, and exploiting the Matteotti crisis to his benefit thus declaring the commencement of a totalitarian regime. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. How totalitarian was fascist Italy?

    Incentives were offered to larger families of payment benefits for children, the imposition of extra taxation on single people and giving priority in employment to fathers. However, the "Battle for Births" was a great failure, and the birth rate even reduced following the introduction of the scheme, due to a

  2. How Successfully did Mussolini Consolidate Fascist Power between 1922 and 1925?

    The Elite, whom Mussolini relied on for much of his support, carried on their assistance in his quest for power. They were rewarded by Mussolini changing his reforms and plans to suit them. For example, he halted his designs to increase land tax to procure their favour.

  1. Why was Mussolini appointed Prime Minister in 1922?

    Farmers, Factory workers, Artists, Poets, Anarchists, Nationalists and Publicans but these people didn't have the money to put into the movement unless there was a socialist revolution. However by 1922 Mussolini's ideas had changed from being left wing to right wing and as a consequence so did his supporters.

  2. To what extent did Mussolini consolidation of power in Italy between 1922 and 1928 ...

    Any critics of Mussolini were beaten up and newspapers that were not supportive of the Fascists were shut down. 1924 was the year, that was Mussolini's most testing in terms of maintaining his grip on Italy. Mussolini resorted to promising that any violent men in the Fascist Party would be

  1. Calvin and Knox: Religious Thinker and Religious Politician

    in Scotland, whereas Calvin aimed to spread Protestant beliefs to the world. Calvin spent years trying to spread Lutheran beliefs. His publications, such as his Institutes Of The Christian Religion, organized Protestant thought and allowed people all over Central and Western Europe access to it (Online: Schaff, p.

  2. Explain how Mussolini was able both to obtain office and to consolidate his power ...

    1921 Giolitti held elections so that the fascists could gain some seats in parliament in order to support his government. It was the dysfunctional and inept nature of the government that led to a growing contempt for the parliamentary system, and a desire for strong leadership - Mussolini promised precisely

  1. A Night to remember - Invincible. That was the sole word in the English ...

    There was great vigour among us, we all felt as enthusiastic as the day we joined the service. This is what we were born for, I felt that my purpose in life was to serve on Hood to eliminate the great German Battleship.

  2. To what extent was the Fascist control in Italy during the years 1925 - ...

    of ?believe, obey, fight? set out to turn young Italians aged between six and 18 into Fascists. The youth clubs offered sport, summer camps and pre-military training. Although the youth were probably more attracted to the facilities than the propaganda message the regime was still boosted, with over 1,236,000 members within a year.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work