• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Europe In revolution

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

How far do you agree with the view that the nineteenth century proved to be a century in which nationalism played a dual role, on one hand transforming the European state system, while on the other hand ensuring that democracy and socialism did not challenge the power of established elites? The Vienna settlement was concluded on June 8th, 1815; ten days before Napoleon's inevitable surrender became reality. The main goal of the settlement was widely recognised as to achieve such a balance of power, that no one state should be in the position to threaten the independence of another. Through this balance of power the European statesmen hoped to provide for stability in Europe and thus secure peace. Securing peace was also ensured by the efforts made to prevent further French aggression. Not all the principles, however, where this vague and idealistic. Especially the monarchs wished to secure their own position and work together to prevent revolutionary ideas from spreading. Thus came the principles of solidarity and legitimacy: all the 'legitimate' rulers should be bound to solidarity. The key aims of Vienna settlement were to restore the old system absolutism, restore the divided and weak state system in central Europe, prevent revolution across Europe, resolve disputes between states in Europe and prevent political change across Europe. ...read more.

Middle

There were several attempts in Germany, Italy and Austria to create nation states. The powers of Europe Austria, Prussia and Russia all insured that these attempts failed. Russia promoted nationalism in the Balkans in an attempt to break the Ottoman Empire and create friendly states in the Balkans. Austria, fearing that nationalities in her own empire which bordered the Balkan region might get ideas and allied her self with turkey, Britain and France in the Crimean war against Russia to stop nationalism. After mid-1850's Austria was alone in defending the Vienna settlement as Russia used nationalism to gain more influence in the Balkans and Prussia was determined that she should expand in Germany and that meant using nationalist rhetoric. In the 1840s, nationalism began to assert a strong hold among many European countries, and the Concert was unable to stop the unifications of Germany and Italy. As these two countries had shown, Europeans were filled with a new spirit of "real politics" that was strongly nationalistic and not afraid to use force to accomplish their goals. The liberals and nationalist movements and revolutions in early 19th century failed to unify Italy. This was because they lacked popular support and Austria military dominance ensured that the revolutionary movements were crushed. ...read more.

Conclusion

The middle classes demanded constitutional change and social welfare. The working classes demanded democratic reforms, social welfare and the redistribution of wealth which result the rise of political parties and movements which represent the interest of these classes. European countries react differently to these pressures. Some European countries Britain, Holland, Sweden, Norway, Belgium, Italy and France liberalised their political system and democratic reforms and social welfare introduced. In Germany, elites divert people from democratic reform by using aggressive foreign policy but social welfare introduced. Austria and Russia totally ignored the demands of middle and working class which fuelled revolutionary and nationalist forces. After the unification of Germany, Italy and Greece the nationalism increased in Balkans in the 1870's. After a series of war and international negotiations took place which introduced three new states Romania, Bulgaria and Serbia. Serbia began to encourage nationalism among the Serb and Slav. Now multi ethnic states in Austrian empire began demand for independence. A series of Balkans wars led to the expansion of Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia. Austria was in panic as she had the most multi ethnic groups in Europe and because of the spread of nationalism in Austria. Austria pursued aggressive anti-Serb policies which Germany back which poisoned the international relations in Europe and led to First World War. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Assess the view that the failures of the Congress of Vienna outweighed the successes.

    In a little over 15 years, many elements of the Settlement were undermined: the newly created Kingdom of Holland was broken up, the Bourbon restoration in France had ended and Tsar Nicholas I had revoked the constitution granted to Poland.

  2. What were the obstacles to German Unification immediatly before the 1848 Revolutions

    in no way was the Holy Roman Empire Roman because Rome had never been part of it or any of its Emperors Roman and it wasn't an Empire because it did not directly control any of the states in it, but besides this it did benefit the Habsburgs who gained

  1. Bismarck's effect on Germany and Europe

    Because of this action Bismarck no longer had to be involved in the Eastern Crisis. In 1887 Russia approached Germany seeking a defensive alliance against Austria. Bismarck knew that an alliance with Russia against Austria was impossible and therefore revealed the contents of the Dual Alliance to Russia.

  2. In the process of consolidating his position, Napoleons reforms, had by 1808, destroyed the ...

    appointed, often out of the ranks of a new elite - the notables." This was an indirect abolishment of meritocracy, a system where people were rewarded due to ability and skill - the way which had entitled Napoleon himself to his position of power.

  1. Hitlers Germany

    Such was the bounty of the recovery that from 1954 on some two million Germans a year could travel to Italy. There were also countless excursions of factory workers and other groups traveling through Germany and neighboring countries on trips that had once been possible only for the well-to-do.

  2. To What Extent was Napoleon Master of Europe

    After promoted 'Consul for life' by the senates, with increased confidence, Napoleon started making reforms in the way France should be run. In secondary schools, he created the lycee. The environment of these schools would be run with strict military disciplined.

  1. Russian Nationalism and the Soviet Revolution

    Richard Hellie wrote: The first restrictions were made ... sometime between 1455 and 1462 in granting the Troitse Sergiev monastery the right to recover those peasants who had moved or fled. This control, originally granted to a monastery, but soon extended to private proprietors, was the beginning of a long, complex process culminating in the Ulozhenie (Law Code)

  2. Public health in the 18th Century

    Laissez-Faire is a French term for ?leave to do? or ?leave it alone? (Victorian Britain, 2004) and much of Britain had this attitude towards government and local authorities interventions.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work